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Transcript of Theatre Project
Realism means when people move and talk in a manner similar to that of our everyday behavior. It began at the end of the 19th century. It began as an experiment to make theatre more useful to society. Realism came about partly as a response to these new social / artistic conditions. Realism first showed itself in staging and costumes. Three-dimensional details had been added by 1800. By 1850, theater productions used historically accurate settings and costumes and details, partly as a result of romantic ideals. But it was harder to get realism accepted widely.
The Theatre History in 1800s-Present time
One of the most famous of the absurdist plays is
The Bald Soprano.
It was written by Eugene Ionesco.
Here is a teaser trailer of
The Bald Soprano
put on by Belhaven University in 2011
set design based on realism
How Theatre Was Affected
Born March 20th 1828 in Skien, Norway.At 15, Ibsen worked as an apprentice in an apothecary for six years, using his limited free time to write poetry and paint. In 1849, he wrote his first play
One of his friends, paid for the publication of Ibsen's first play
, but failed to get much notice. Ibsen left Norway in 1862, eventually settling in Italy for a time. There he wrote
, The play made him famous in Scandinavia. The play helped launch his career and was soon followed up by one of his most famous works,
A Doll's House.
This 1879 play that set tongues a-wagging throughout Europe for exploration of Nora's struggle with the traditional roles of wife and mother and her own need for self-exploration. Ibsen was considered to be the father of modern realistic drama. His plays attacked society’s values and dealt with unconventional subjects within the form of the well-made play.
He became a model for later realistic writers. Later in life, Ibsen turned to more symbolic and abstract dramas; but his "realism" affected others, and helped lead to realistic theatre, which has become, despite variations and rejections against it, the predominant form of theatre even today.
Some famous plays in the modern times are A Doll's House, A Streetcar Named Desire, West Side Story, Rent, The Diary of Anne Frank (based on the true story of a girl who told her story while living in the Holocaust), Les Miserables, The Phantom of the Opera, Into the Woods (which is being filmed right now and to be released on Christmas in 2014), Death of a Salesmen, The Bald Soprano, and many more.
A Doll's House caused such an uproar because in that time period, woman were judged by men, as though they were not a woman but a man. Men thought that since a woman does not think or act like a man, then they are a lower being. Ibsen states, “A woman cannot be herself in the society of the present day, which is an exclusively masculine society, with laws framed by men and with a judicial system that judges feminine conduct from a masculine point of view.” A woman in the 19th century is obligated to her husband to follow a man’s wishes in everything and to strictly obey their orders. Also a woman making her way on her on was a hard road to take. With this background of the gender roles in the 19th century, one can use it to understand Nora and why she acts the way she does in Ibsen’s “A Doll House”. It was unheard of for a woman not to mind her husband or father. Nora is loyal to her husband and family the way any 19th century wife would be.
Absurdism has realist elements that has exaggerated craziness of daily life.It refer more to the style in which the playwright created the play in rather than how it is performed. It sort of related to Existentialism, in the sense that its rooted in the belief of there being a godless universe. Aburdism plays often wrap characters up in helpless ans senselessly, grotesque situations.
Naturalism refers to the theoretical basis shared by all dramatists who formed the movement, and their approach to representing the world. Emilie Zola( who is considered to be the father of Naturalism) stated this term in his preface to the novel,
. He said that the writers task is to dissect the environment and human nature with clinical precision of a scientist. Gradually naturalism theatre became obsessed with surface verisimilitude (
).They were unable to depict reality in its complexity. Even though, the influence of naturalism was the strongest in the drawing room comedies and in boulevard theatre.
some plays that are still performed today is Peter Pan,
The Bald Soprano, A streetcar named desire, a doll's house, roots, rent, cats, once on this island, The importance of being Earnest, cyrano de bergerac, and many more.
- white performers imitating Africans comics
dramatic works that make a subject appear ridiculous
- formulaic plays(modern day soap opera)
-playwrights get paid for every performance in which their material is involved.
- distance between the audience empathy and detachment
theatre of cruelty-
theatre that treats the audience as a mental patient in need of healing
theatre as extroverted attempt to influence ans describe societal forces
theatre as an introverted examination of internal, subterranean forces
- noncomic plays accompained by music, changes the play to have heroes and villains
Some famous playwrights are Henrik Isben, Emilie Zola, Samuel Beckett, Bertolt Brecht, Lillian Hellman, T.S. Eliot, August Strindberg, and Tennessee Williams.
In 1820, candles and oil lamps were replaced by gas lights. The opening of Savoy Theater in London, in 1881, was the first stage lit by electricity.
Many theaters had to shut down, especially in London, had to close down because of the air raids, heavy bombing, and blackout. Also, a lot of paint and materials was rationed during the war and some years after that. So, that made it difficult to put on a production. ENSA(Entertainments National Service Association) created by Basil Dean, was made during that time to provide entertainment for the soldiers and workers.
One of the first African American to perform on stage, in front of white people, was William Henry Lee. He was also one of the inventors of tap dancing, and his stage name was Master Juba.