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Volunteering as Leisure: Leisure as Volunteering, June 2014
Transcript of Volunteering as Leisure: Leisure as Volunteering, June 2014
PDP and the Industry Experience Portfolio
Origins in 2002: development of Personal Development Planning process at GCU with Prof Gayle McPherson
HLST network recognition
Focus on employability alongside academic and personal development
The Portfolio Worker (Roberts, 1999)
Evolution in 2010: RGU with Dr Daniel Turner
15 credit module framework
Industry Experience Portfolio in years 1-3 (3x100 hours)
Greater and more regular role for reflection and career planning
Link to guest speakers, site visits, case study assessment, 'live' modules, internships
Staff as conduits and facilitators
1st honours graduates in 2014
"They are both helping to create, and sharing in, the experiences." (Getz, 2012, p212)
Altruistic motives and personal enrichment: older volunteers? (Cuskelly et al, 2006; Tum et al, 2006)
Commitment to the success of the event (Farrell et al, 1998)
Pride of place (Bang & Chelladurai, 2003)
Satisfaction via being part of something special, enhanced job skills and social networks (Elstad, 1997; Kemp, 2002)
Experience related to interests, e.g. sport (Johnston et al, 2000)
Bang & Ross's modified VMS-ISE (2009)
Volunteering as primarily a leisure experience? (Parker, 1997)
I quit! Workload, lack of appreciation and poor organisation (Elstad, 2003)
Balance between instrumental and altruistic student motives; reference group influence; culture of volunteering; peripheral roles (Smith et al, 2010; Francis, 2011; Handy et al, 2009; Edwards et al, 2001)
Motivating and Satisfying Volunteers
The Road Ahead
"I say 'primarily' because motives are often mixed. Who is to say a particular act of apparently altruistic volunteering does not also provide a leisure experience for the volunteer? Some leisure activities enable people to feel they are doing something worthwhile and serving a cause, while at the same time enjoying themselves." (Parker, 1997)
Building on original 'extension' relationship between work and leisure? (Parker, 1983; Roberts, 1999)
Seeking out experiences (Pine & Gilmore, 2011)
Work as play, for the benefit of consumers and workers?
Social and cultural capital?
Volunteering as a commodified experience?
Ongoing involvement as 'serious leisure'? (Stebbins, 2004)
Good citizenship; self-actualisation; connection to sub-culture
The Event Experience
Extent of volunteering in completing IEP
Value of events work experience
Indications of work as leisure experience/serious leisure
Motivations to volunteer
Online survey to 165 existing RGU Events Management students
Part of wider review of RGU Events student experience
81 replies to date (49%)
Combination of closed and open questions
Focus groups with mixed groups of RGU Events students
1 of 4 completed
Key framework of modified VMS-ISE (Bang & Ross, 2009)
Values, community involvement, contacts, career orientation, personal growth, extrinsic rewards, love of events
Phase 1: Completion and analysis of focus groups
Phase 2: Expansion of survey to GCU Events Management graduate network 2004-2013
Phase 3: The employer perspective
Range of student motivation and outcomes from volunteering experiences
Some element of enjoyment and 'insider' status, but overwhelmed by vocational focus of students
Instrumental BUT actively engaging with learning opportunities
Challenge in (some) employer support
Some long term commitment under the surface
Potential of FE/HE to contribute
The Events Industry
consumer and trade shows
Educational and scientific
(from Getz, 1997, typology of events)
Bang, H & Chelladurai, P (2003) 'Motivation and Satisfaction in Volunteering for 2002 World Cup in Korea.' Paper presented at the Conference of the North American Society for Sport Management. Ithaca, New York. May 2003
Bang, H & Ross, SD (2009) 'Volunteer motivation and satisfaction', Journal of Venue and Event Management, Vol.1, No.1, pp.61-77.
Beaven, Z & Wright, R (2006) 'Experience! Experience! Experience! Employer Attitudes to Arts & Events Management Graduate Employability', International Journal of Event Management Research, Vol.2, No.1, pp.17-24.
Bianchi, RV (2000) 'Migrant Tourist-Workers: Exploring the 'Contact Zones' of Post-Industrial Tourism', Current Issues in Tourism, Vol.3, No.2, pp.107-137.
Bladen, C, Kennell, J, Abson, E & Wilde, N (2012) Events Management. Abingdon: Routledge.
Bowdin, G, Allen, J, O'Toole, W, Harris, R & McDonnell, I (2011) Events Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Costa, CA, Chalip, L, Green, BC, Simes, C (2006) ‘Reconsidering the Role of Training in Event Volunteers’ Satisfaction’, Sport Management Review, Vol.9, No.2, pp.165-182.
Cuskelly, G, Hoye, R & Auld, C (2006) Working with Volunteers in Sport: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
Edwards, B, Mooney, L, Heald, C (2001) 'Who is Being Served? The Impact of Student Volunteering on Local Community Organizations', Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 30, pp.444-461.
Elstad, B (1997) 'Volunteer Perceptions of Learning and Satisfaction in a Mega-Event: The Case of the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer', Festival Management and Event Tourism, Vol.4, No.3-4, pp.5-83.
Elstad, B (2003) 'Continuance Commitment and Reasons to Quit: A Study of Volunteers at a Jazz Festival', Event Management, Vol.8, No.2, pp.99-108.
Francis, JE (2011) 'The Functions and Norms that Drive University Student Volunteering', International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol.16,, No.1, pp.1–12.
Getz, D (1997) Event Management and Tourism. New York: Cognizant.
Getz, D (2012) Event Studies. Abingdon: Routledge.
Goldblatt, J (2005) Special Events. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
Part of the 'pulsating organisation' (Goldblatt, 2005; Toffler, 1990)
Keeping costs down? (Bowdin et al, 2011)
HR need to recruit, motivate and retain volunteers, across large and small events (Van Der Wagen, 2007)
Success via a pool of willing and repeat volunteers
Volunteers as the 'unsung heroes' of major sporting events (Bladen et al, 2012)
Increasingly, reward and recognition (Bowdin et al, 2011)
Managing expectations (Van Der Wagen, 2007)
"If the event is fun they will return next year." (O'Toole, 2011, p222)
Often undertaking vocational training and developing useful skill-sets (Costa et al, 2006; Nichols & Ralston, 2012)
'Real-life' experience desired by events industry employers (Beaven & Wright, 2006)
Handy, F et al (2009) 'A Cross-Cultural Examination of Student Volunteering: Is It All About Résumé Building?', Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol.39, No.3, pp.498-523.
Johnston, M, Twynam, G & Farrell, J (2000) 'Motivation and Satisfaction of Event Volunteers for a Major Youth Organisation', Leisure, Vol.24, No.1, pp.161-177.
Nichols, G & Ralston, R (2012) 'Lessons from the Volunteering Legacy of the 2002 Commonwealth Games', Urban Studies, Vol.49, No.1, pp.169-184
O'Toole, W (2011) Events Feasibility and Development. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Parker, S (1983) Leisure and Work. London: Allen & Unwin.
Parker, S (1997) 'Volunteering - Altruism, Markets, Causes and Leisure', World Leisure and Recreation, Vol.39, No.3, pp.4-5.
Pine, J & Gilmore, J (2011) The Experience Economy: Updated Edition, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Roberts, K (1999) Leisure in Contemporary Society. Wallingford: CABI.
Smith, K, Holmes, K, Haski-Leventhal, D, Cnaan, RA, Handy, F, Brudney, JL (2010) 'Motivations and Benefits of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, and Non-Volunteers in Five Countries', Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research , Vol.1, No.1, pp-65-81.
Stebbins, RA (2004) Between Work and Leisure. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Toffler, A (1990) Powershift. New York: Bantam Books.
Tum, J, Norton, P & Wright, JN (2006) Management of Event Operations. Abingdon: Butterwoth-Heinemann.
Uriely, N (2001) ''Travelling Workers' and 'Working Tourists': Variations Across the Interaction between Work and Tourism', International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp.1-8.
Van Der Wagen, L (2007) Human Resource Management for Events.. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Aaron McIntosh MSc
Robert Gordon University
Most Rewarding Experiences
"The Enchanted Forest....it was a unique event and there was a lot to do."
"Being part of Glasgow 2014. ha been amazing. It has given me an insight into how a multi-sport event is run.....It has confirmed my desire to gain employment in this field."
"Volunteeng at a music festival, as this is the areas of events management that I am most interested in."
"Offshore Europe. Variety of jobs on a large scale lasting 1 week."
"Helping with the organisation of a local event, as it gave me a more hands-on approach than other events I volunteered at."
"Gave me the basic skills to progress."
"Working with a local community group....I got a wider range of experience and could contribute more to the planning."
"Short term work experiences have often been more rewarding as employers tend to communicate better and appreciate the work more as it has often been charity related."
"I felt my work was appreciated."
"Treated with the respect of an up and coming events manager. Listened to potential ideas and provided valuable feedback on my performance."
"When attendees thank you for your customer service and have had a great experience."
"Meeting with the young carers at VSAand seeing how the work we did impacted on them."
"Working at TITP because I got to work at Geoff Ellis' private bar!"
Perks of the 'Job'
Meeting new people
Knowledge of different event genres
Develop skills learned in class
Making a difference
Fun and enjoyment