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Economic and Social Change 1918-29

Y8 Lesson M10

Laurie Johnston

on 21 February 2017

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Transcript of Economic and Social Change 1918-29

What do you know now?


Difficult IND. REL. before WW1 continued after war
Mines, docks, railways, textiles the main problem areas
many disputes about control of industry, wages and hours
union membership doubled in war to 8m
TU leaders agreed to end all disputes during war
cost of living doubled in war
85m days of strikes lost in 1921
1921 brought unemployment in mines, shipyards etc.

What do you know now?

Exit Progress - INDEX CARD 16 - ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGE 1918-1928

Women got the vote but lost their jobs - attitudes were slow to change
pre-war industrial unrest continued after WW1 over hours, pay and ownership in mines, docks and rail
attempts to cut miners wages and hours led to strikes in 1921 and 1925
The GENERAL STRIKE failed because the TUC was scared, short of money and could not see how to win
The government had prepared well - volunteers, extra police, army and food dumps
Union membership fell, wages were cut and hours rose after 1926
In order to demonstrate that you have met the red, blue and green objectives :

Write INDEX CARD 12 Equality for women?
Attitudes were still slow to change
Women over 30 got vote 1918, 18 in 1928
Few women in Parliament before WW2, first woman minister 1924
75% of women workers lost their jobs at end of WW1
Wages remained lower than men and the sack when pregnant
men in charge, unmarried mothers a disgrace, birth control condemned,
1% educated beyond 18 but could divorce adulterous husbands from 1923
Progress Check- books
How did your partner get on?
Fill in your peer assessment sheet

When you get your own sheet back put in how you would improve your own learning.

INDEX CARD 15 The General Strike 1926

SAMUEL - wages cut, no increase in hours, mines to modernise
Miners would not accept wage cut - locked out by owners
TUC called GENERAL STRIKE in 2 stages - front line workers first (Transport, print, gas, electricity)
3m on strike but Govt. had planned for it - volunteers, food dumps, special constables
good humour at first, propaganda on both sides
mood turned violent - attacks on police in big Northern cities e.g. Hull
Govt. accused TUC of seeking REVOLUTION, TUC threatened to turn power off
...but then called the strike off! Miners betrayed again! Why?
TUC losing propaganda war, could not see how to win -fear of revolution, running out of money
wages cut, hours + for many, union membership fell, miners defeated again
Anti-union laws passed - the General Strike failed


Today's words?
Do Now
We will read pages :

Helpful Hints:
To get a C grade what language are you using? Can you use historical key terms?
Economic/Social/Political Económico / social / político.

We will read : The diagram!

Helpful Hints:
To get a C grade what language are you using? Can you use historical key terms?
Economic/Social/Political Económico / social / político

How do you feel about these objectives at the moment?
What is your target level?
What are you going to aim for today?

By the end of the lesson (targets) -
All of you: Will learn to explain economic and social change (STEP CONFIDENT) GRADE 4/5

Most of you: Will learn how to analyse economic and social change (STEP PROFICIENT) GRADE 5/6/7

Some of you : Will learn how to evaluate/examine economic and social change (STEP COMPETENT/ACCOMPLISHED
GRADE 7/8/9
Give examples if you can for every word
Title: Economic and Social Change 1918-29
Date: 22nd February 2017

RECAP: Last time in History we learnt that...
Rationing was introduced in 1918 for jam, tea, butter plus no meat for breakfast
Rationing helped Britain defeat German submarine threat and win the war
5m men joined the armed forces and women had to take their place
government slow to organise women's work
attitudes to women workers took time to change
need for munitions meant many women woked in arms factories
independence for many women - make-up, pubs, trousers
100000 women armed forces, 800 000 women engineers by 1918, 23000 nurses
women on recruitment posters, handed out white feathers

Underground worker e.g. coal miner
Various methods for preventing pregnancy following sex
relationship between workers and employers
unhappiness leading to various actions
organisation to protect and promote workers rights at work
workers in docks (unload/load ships)
government control of key industries e.g. mines
ownership of industry by individuals
workers have to take a reduction in wages
a pay out to keep something going
a strike by workers in every industry at the same time
overthrow of the existing ruling order
organisation of British Trade Unions

Biggest problem for Govt - the mines
Mines under Govt. control in WW1 (DORA) returned to private owners in 1918
Price of coal dropped 50% 1921 - wages cut 50% and hours increased
Miners had support of rail workers and transport workers for joint strike
Rail and transport abandoned miners (BLACK FRIDAY). Miners lost strike. Dockers and rail workers also had wage cuts.
1925 coal price fell again - further wage cut, longer hours
'..not a penny off the pay, not an hour on the day...' A. J. Cook
It was clear rail and transport workers would support miners. Govt. knew this too.
Govt. bought time by subsidising miner's wages for 6 months and setting up SAMUEL Commission to find answer (RED FRIDAY)
1. in 1918 women over 30 got the:

a) Plague
b) Vote
c) hump
d) the fright of their lives
2. After WW1 75% of women workers
a) voted Labour
b) were married
c) had been mislaid
d) had lost their jobs
3. The prevailing attitude after WW1 was that:
a) Men were in charge
b) unmarried mothers were a disgrace
c) birth control was wrong
d) university education was not for women
4. Industrial relations before WW1 had been:
a) lovely
b) characterised by disputes over wages, hours and ownership
c) ignored
d) preferred to agricultural ones
5. During WW1 the Unions:

a) agreed to suspend disputes
b) went to the seaside
c) sat about and sulked
d) refused to help
6. After WW1 unrest:

a) was a thing of the past
b) happened mostly at night
c) started again in the mines, docks, railways, textiles etc.
d) could be cured by night nurse
7. A fall in the price of coal in 1921 led to:

a) Mine owners cutting wages and increasing hours
b) many changing to gas
c) more bonfires
d) frostbite
8. In 1925 the price of coal fell again leading mine owners cutting wages again and increasing hours. Miner's leader A. J. Cook said....

a) that's OK - we don't mind
b) you must be ***!*** joking pal
c) not a penny off the pay, not a minute on the day
d) im going to tell my mum
9. The SAMUEL COMMISSION ruled that:

a) wages must be cut and hours lengthened
b) wages cannot be cut but hours can be increased
c) A penny must come off the pay and a minute must go on the day
d) wages cut, hours stay the same, mines modernised
The TUC called a...

a) General Strike
b) friend
c) cousin to come and sort them out
d) spade a spade
11. The TUC called the strike off because:
a) they were losing the propaganda war
b) they were scared
c) they were out of money
d) they could not see how to win
Full transcript