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Medical Terminology Chapter 7 - The Respiratory System

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Grecia Nino

on 21 May 2014

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Transcript of Medical Terminology Chapter 7 - The Respiratory System

• To bring oxygen-rich air into the body for delivery to the blood cells. The cells then deliver the oxygen to the body’s tissues.
• To expel waste products (such as carbon dioxide and some liquids) that are returned to the lungs by the blood.
• To produce airflow through the larynx that makes speech possible.

• Internal Respiration – This is the exchange of gases between the various cells of the body’s tissues. In this processs, oxygen passes from the blood cells to the tissue cells, while carbon dioxide is passed from the tissue cells to the blood cells for delivery back to the lungs.
During respiration, the diaphragm and intercostals muscles relax and contract to make exhalation and inhalation possible.
External respiration – This is a bodily process known as breathing. It is the act of brining air into the lungs and expelling it.
• Inhalation – Also known as inhaling, this is the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward. This action expands the thoracic cavity and creates a vacuum that draws in air.
• Exhalation – Also known as exhaling, this is the act of breathing out, which relaxes the diagram and narrows the thoracic cavity, forcing air out of the lungs.

The Upper Respiratory Tract
The mouth, also known as the oral cavity, is the secondary external opening for the respiratory tract. Most normal breathing takes place through the nasal cavity, but the oral cavity can be used to supplement or replace the nasal cavity’s functions when needed. Because the pathway of air entering the body from the mouth is shorter than the pathway for air entering from the nose, the mouth does not warm and moisturize the air entering the lungs as well as the nose performs this function. The mouth also lacks the hairs and sticky mucus that filter air passing through the nasal cavity. The one advantage of breathing through the mouth is that its shorter distance and larger diameter allows more air to quickly enter the body.
The nose is a structure of the face made of cartilage, bone, muscle, and skin that supports and protects the anterior portion of the nasal cavity. The nose serves a few important purposes for the respiratory system. Because a large percentage of the air we breathe comes in through the nose, it acts as a first line of defense for your respiratory system. Air often enters the nose at a temperature that is too cold to be ideal, so the nostrils act as a temperature-conditioning device that warms the air before it reaches the lungs. Likewise, breathing dry air directly into the lungs inhibits respiratory efficiency and so the nose acts as a humidifier. And because there are contaminants and irritants in the air that surrounds us, the nose acts as a filter. The lining of the nose, called mucosa, produces mucus, which keeps the nose moist and traps tiny particles. Epithelial cells have cilia (hair-like projections) that line the inside of the nostrils, which move the mucus, and tiny particles trapped in mucus, out of the nose. This is called mucocilliary clearance.
The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage that acts as a switch between the trachea and the esophagus. Because the pharynx is also used to swallow food, the epiglottis ensures that air passes into the trachea by covering the opening to the esophagus. During the process of swallowing, the epiglottis moves to cover the trachea to ensure that food enters the esophagus and to prevent choking.
The pharynx, also known as the throat, is a muscular funnel that extends from the posterior end of the nasal cavity to the superior end of the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx is located behind the mouth and nose. The function of the pharynx is to warm, moisten and filter air before it moves into the trachea. The pharynx is divided into 3 regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The pharynx (throat) consists of the following three regions, listed in order through which incoming air passes:
The nasopharynx receives the incoming air from the two internal nares. The two auditory tubes that equalize air pressure in the middle ear also enter here. The pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) lies at the back of the nasopharynx.
The oropharyrnx receives air from the nasopharynx and food from the oral cavity. The palatine and lingual tonsils are located here.
The laryngopharynx passes food to the esophagus and air to the larynx.
Functions of the Respiratory System
The Structure of the Respiratory System
Medical Terminology Chapter 7 - The Respiratory System
Andrew Douglas
Grecia Nino
Andres Sanchez
Elizabeth Ukoli

The larynx is also known as the voice box as it is where sound is generated. It also helps protect the trachea by producing a strong cough reflex if any solid objects pass the epiglottis.
Thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple)
Inferior to the epiglottis is the thyroid cartilage, which is often referred to as the Adam’s apple as it is most commonly enlarged and visible in adult males. The thyroid holds open the anterior end of the larynx and protects the vocal folds.
Vocal Folds
The larynx contains special structures known as vocal folds or vocal cords, which allow the body to produce the sounds of speech and singing. The vocal folds are folds of mucous membrane that vibrate to produce vocal sounds. The tension and vibration speed of the vocal folds can be changed to change the pitch that they produce.
The trachea, or windpipe, connects the larynx to the bronchi and allows air to pass through the neck and into the thorax. The rings of cartilage making up the trachea allow it to remain open to air at all times. The open end of the cartilage rings faces posteriorly toward the esophagus, allowing the esophagus to expand into the space occupied by the trachea to accommodate masses of food moving through the esophagus. The main function of the trachea is to provide a clear airway for air to enter and exit the lungs.
The Lower Respiratory Tract
Bronchial tree
Together, the trachea and the two primary bronchi are referred to as the bronchial tree. At the end of the bronchial tree lie the alveolar ducts, the alveolar sacs, and finally the alveoli. The tubes that make up the bronchial tree perform the same function as the trachea. They distribute air to the lungs
The lungs are a pair of large, spongy organs found in the thorax lateral to the heart and superior to the diaphragm. Each lung is surrounded by a pleural membrane that provides the lung with space to expand as well as a negative pressure space relative to the body’s exterior. The negative pressure allows the lungs to passively fill with air as they relax. The left and right lungs are slightly different in size and shape due to the heart pointing to the left side of the body. The left lung is therefore slightly smaller than the right lung and is made up of 2 lobes while the right lung has 3 lobes.
There are 5 lobes in the lung, 3 on the right and 2 on the left. The 'lobes' in the lung are basically just different sections, which make up the entire lung. In general, each section or lobe have similar functions, they each contain branches of alveoli and their job is to work together to filter air and provide oxygen for the bloodstream. 
The mediastinum is the anatomic region located between the lungs that contain all the principal tissues and organs of the chest except the lungs. It extends from the sternum, or breastbone, back to the vertebral column and is bounded laterally by the pericardium, the membrane enclosing the heart, and the mediastinal pleurae, membranes that are continuous with those lining the thoracic cage. The mediastinum is a division of the thoracic cavity; it contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus and trachea, and other structures.
The pleura is a large, thin sheet of tissue that wraps around the outside of your lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity. Between the layers of the pleura is a very thin space. Normally it's filled with a small amount of fluid. The fluid helps the two layers of the pleura glide smoothly past each other as your lungs breathe air in and out.
Parietal Pleura
The parietal pleura is affixed to the wall of the thoracic cavity and covers the superior diaphragm surface. The endothoracic fascia joins it to the inner side of the thoracic cavity. The parietal pleura covers the diaphragm and lines the inner walls of the chest. This structure is a serous membrane and produces a type of serous fluid referred to as Pleural fluid. The fluid helps the surfaces of the visceral and parietal pleurae easily glide over each other when the lungs dilate and contract during respiration.
Visceral Pleura
The visceral pleura runs continuous with the parietal pleura, which is located at the lung base and covers the diaphragm as well as lines the inner chest walls. It firmly adheres to the lungs and cannot be separated from the organ. The main functions of this structure are:
The Visceral pleura follow the underlying lung surface very closely. It covers the lungs closely and adheres to all the surfaces of the organ, except at the hilum and along the spot where it attaches to the pulmonary ligament.
It moves down into the fissures and covers the lobes.
ImagenIt gives a smooth, slippery surface to the lungs and allows it to move freely in the parietal pleura
The pleural cavity, also know as pleural space, is the space that lies between the pleura, the two thin membranes that line and surround the lungs. The pleural cavity contains a small amount of a thin fluid known as the pleural fluid, which provides lubrication as the lungs expand and contract during respiration.
Pleural Cavity
Statistics and fun facts about the Respiratory System
What are olfactory receptors and how do they work for the sense of smell?
Olfactory receptors expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons are responsible for the detection of odor molecules. Activated olfactory receptors are the initial player in a signal transduction cascade which ultimately produces a nerve impulse which is transmitted to the brain. These receptors are members of the class A rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).The olfactory receptors form a multigene family consisting of over 900 genes in humans and 1500 genes in mice.

Difference between mucous membrane and mucus?
The actual fluid that comes out of your nose when you are congested is mucus and the linings in your body that secrete mucus are mucous membranes.

What is the location and function of the paranasal sinuses?
The uvula helps make sound in other languages. It also helps ring out you voice, and keeps food from getting into your nose.

How do we produce speech (explain the process)?
Speech production is the process by which spoken words are selected to be produced, have their phonetics formulated and then finally are articulated by the motor system in the vocal apparatus. Speech production can be spontaneous such as when a person creates the words of a conversation, reaction such as when they name a picture or read aloud a written word, or a vocal imitation such as in speech repetition.
Normally speech is created with pulmonary pressure provided by the lungs that generates sound by phonation in the glottis in the larynx that then is modified by the vocal tract into different vowels and consonants. However speech production can occur without the use of the lungs and glottis in alaryngeal speech by using the upper parts of the vocal trait.

Other fun facts about the respiratory system…
When at rest, humans exhale up to 17.5 milliliters (0.59 fluid ounces) of water per hour, according to a 2012 article in the journal Polish Pneumonology and Allergology. But you lose about four times that amount when you exercise, the study said.
The average time an adult can hold his or her breath is between 30 and 60 seconds. This limitation has more to do with the buildup of blood-acidifying carbon dioxide than the lack of oxygen, which your body stores in muscle proteins called myoglobin.
Each of your lungs contains about 300 million balloon-like structures called alveoli, which replace the carbon-dioxide waste in your blood with oxygen. When these structures are filled with air, the lungs become the only organs in the human body that can float on water.

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