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Chapter 8 :
Transcript of Chapter 8 :
In 1761, Spain and France entered into a treaty of alliance against England ambition for supremacy. During the seven years war in Europe between France and England, Spain was naturally drawn into the conflict. The British sent an expedition from India, which at that time was a colony of England, to the Philippines to occupy and seize it from Spain. Archbishop Manuel Rojo was acting Governor-General when the British, with 6000 men including Sepoys form Bombay bombarded Intramuros, Malate, Ermita, and Bagumbayan (now Luneta ) on September 22, 1762. Unprepared from such decisive attack, the Spaniards with their Filipino soldiers tried desperately to defend Intramuros, particularly the ramparts of San Diego and San Andres. Their canons were no match to the superior canons and weapons of the English. Archbishop Rojo surrendered Manila and Cavite while Simon Anda, a magistrate of the audiencia escaped to Pampanga to continue the resistance. The British took over the reigns of government and guaranteed the safety of Spanish officials, the community and the property. BRITISH ENVASION AND OCCUPATION THE SILANG AND PALARIS REVOLT In the same year 1762, Diego Silang, an Ilocano form Ilocos province rose in revolt. He demanded the expulsion of Spaniards and Spanish Mestizo from Ilocos. He was successful at first he was able to expel the Spanish Provincial Governor and many Spaniard from Vigan. He then declared himself King of Ilocos. The British impressed by Silang’s victories tried to win him over to their side by sending him gifts and promising him to make him Governor of the province if he conspired with the British against the Spaniards. Silang accepted their offer but the alliance ended when he was killed by an assassin. His wife Gabriela took over the leadership and carried on the fight courageously but she was later captured and hanged along with one hundred followers. That same year 1762, Juan de la Cruz Palaris lead a widespread revolt in Pangasinan, demanding for the end to the payment of tributes and countless abuses by the Spanish officials. The revolt, which started in Binalatongan, spread to the towns of Bayambang, Paniqui (then a part of Pangasinan) Dagupan, Calasiao, Santa Barbara, Mangaldan, San Jacinto, and Malasiki. Palaris having been inspired by the recent success of the british invasion of Manila succeeded in inciting people to revolt. BASCO’S ECONOMIC PLANS The economy develops slowly for several reasons, such as the incompetence of Spanish officials, graft and greed of the merchants and Religious Corporation engaged in the galleon trade, restrictive economic policies which close some parts of the country to other foreign countries and the constant quarrels between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities assigned in the colonies. In 1778, Jose Basco y Vargas who was appointed Governor General of the Philippines surveyed the economic condition of the colony and found it to be far from satisfactory. To improve commerce, industry, and agriculture, Gov. Basco encouraged the cultivation of crops for export like indigo, coffee, cocoa, sugar, hemp, mulberry trees, spices and cotton. He also encouraged the development of mines that produce gold, tin and copper. He offered prices to those who excelled in the manufacture of silk and fabrics of cotton and flax. Advance agricultural implements were imported from the United States. For the effective implementation of his economic plans, Gov. Basco founded the economic society of friends of the country in 1781 and established the Royal Company in 1785. The Royal Company failed in its purpose to improve foreign trade between the colony and Spain because of mismanagement and lack of cooperation of the Manila merchants who preferred to engage in the galleon trade. In 1807, some 10,000 rebels in Ilocos revolted against the government monopoly of locally produced wine from sugar cane called “BASI”. The Basi revolt as it was called was among the bloodiest uprising ever recorded this time. LAIZESS-FAIRE AND THE OPENING OF PORTS Laizess-faire or the let alone policy in commercial and trading ventures by the Europeans caught the interest of the Spanish King. This policy gives full freedom to private individual and firms to engage in economic activities without much interference from the government. The ports of Iloilo, Zamboanga and Sual were open to foreign trade in 1855. Cebu was open in1860 and Tacloban and Legaspi in 1873. The opening of this port increased the value or exports. Consequently manufacturing and agriculture develop to answer the demand for different products from the different provinces. The British consul in Iloilo Nicholas Loney introduced the first modern machinery that converted sugar cane into refined sugar. This led to the unprecedented prosperity of the provinces engaged in sugar production into the rise of the middle class. THE RISE OF THE “FILIPINO” MIDDLE CLASS It was inevitable that with material progress, social changes would follow. Somehow the fruits of these developments in trade and commerce benefited the mestizos particularly the Spanish and Chinese mestizos. As export and agriculture increase, inquilinos or the tenants in the haciendas and their families began to accumulate wealth. Belonging to the middle class also meant changing their former lifestyle, clothing, houses, forms of amusement, and cultural activities to those that were similar or closer to what Spaniards and Europeans did and maintains which were comfortable and expensive. By contrast, Indios in the lower class live in poverty and ignorance, and suffered more discrimination. At this early date, two events foreshadowed the developing consciousness of the masses as a different praise and class in the society. The first event was the publication of Florante at Laura in 1838, by Francisco Baltazar or Balagtas. Another event was the revolt of Apolinario de la Cruz or Hermano Pule who was then called “The King of the Tagalogs” in Tayabas now Quezon province in 1841. The Spaniards in the Philippines founded many colleges for men and women. But this universities and colleges were exclusively for the Spaniards and the Spanish Mestizos. These include San Juan de Letran, San Jose, San Felipe and others. The schools for women included the college of Sta. Potenciana, Sta. Isabel College, The Sta. Rosa College among others. It was not until the second half of the 19th century that these colleges including the University of Sto. Thomas admitted natives. As the Spaniards feared it that was the illustrados who would later ask embarrassing questions about Spanish misleads, incompetence, inefficiency, greed, and corruption and most dangerously they push the idea of the Indios as the Filipinos with equal right as the Spaniards in the country. THE EDUCATION OF SOME FILIPINOS THE OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL The changes that took place in the second half of the 19th century had far reaching effects in the Filipinos. One of these important changes was the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. This resulted in the shorter route and travel time between Spain and the Philippines. Many Spaniards with progressive ideas migrated to the Philippines among them were exiled creoles from Mexico like Varela and Novales who’s subversive ideas and activities advocated freedom and liberties. They influenced some educated Filipinos and soon both were asking the government to introduce changes in the administration of the colony. Another effect of the shorter distance between Spain and the Philippines was the influx of progressive books and periodicals in the country. LIBERALISM IN THE PHILLIPINES In 1868, a revolution took place in Spain. The revolutionists were against the autocratic reign of Queen Isabel II. When the revolutionists won, Queen Isabel II was forced to flee in to France. As a result of this the republic of Spain was born. It lasted 1868 to 1870.
One of the Spanish revolutionist governor-generals Carlos Maria de la torre who fought for popular suffrage, freedom of speech, the press, and of religion brought to the country a some liberal and progressive Spaniards, when he arrived in manila; he put into practice the liberal principles of the revolutionists in Spain. He showed his democratic ways by living simply and avoiding luxury, by dismissing the halberdiers of his palace, and by walking the street of manila in civilian clothes.
The educated Indios, Mestizo, and Spaniards sympathize and serenaded to show their appreciation of the governor’s kind attention and democratic ways.
De la T orre’s administration of the Philippines’ was significant because of the ff. reasons;
He abolishes the censorship of the press, he abolishes flogging as a punishment, and he solves the agrarian rest in Cavite.
THE RETURN OF AUTOCRACY
The administration of governor de la Torre was brief. The monarchy in Spain was restored in 1870, a new king assumed the throne. The monarchist officials in Spain sent to the Philippines some like-minded Spaniards to take over the political leadership of the country. One of these was Rafael de Izquierdo who was appointed to replace de la Torre
In 1871, being an autocrat, he boasted that he would like to rule the Philippines with a cross in one hand and a sword in the other hand.
This boast was not empty promise, immediately; he revised the reforms of de la Torre. Censorship of the press and restrictions on freedom of speech was restored. Naturally the friars and the monarchist among the Spaniards became his staunch supporters and were happy over his reactionary attitude. THE CAMPAIGNE OF SECULARIZATION Priesthood during the Spanish time composed of two classes; the regular and the secular, the regular priests were those who belong to religious orders and the secular were not member of s of any religious orders. Regular priest or simply regulars have a mission to fulfill like converting non-Christians to Christians.
In the Philippines, the friars of religious order not only made converts t Christianity but they also occupied parishes, they were called the friar-curates. When the natives studied priesthood and become seculars they were given subordinate positions. The friar –curates refuse to vacate the parishes. This led to the controversy between the seculars and the regulars. It started when the seculars asked for their right to administer parish. At first archbishop and governors supported their demands and a few secular Filipino became parish heads. However they remained neutral, the controversy become heated when a decree was passed denying the natives clergy the right to administer the parishes occupied the regulars. This led to the campaign called secularization. Then later the movement called filipinization because of its racial overtone. The leader of the campaign was father Pedro Pablo Pelaez (1812-1863) a Spanish Mestizo. After his death he was succeeded by father Jose borgus(1837-1872), another Spanish Mestizo. Other secular priest involved in the secularization movement who were either a Spanish Mestizos, Chinese metizos, or indios included fathers Jacinto Zamora, Mariano Gomez, Toribio del Pilar, Mariano Sevilla, Pedro Dandan, Jose Guevara and many more. THE CAVITY MUTINY The relations of Filipino seculars and Spanish regulars grew from bad to worst. The Spanish regulars who continued to occupy the parishes blamed the Filipino priests by saying that the latter were not prepared to administer parishes, this cause greater enmity between them. On the other hand Filipino seculars continued their campaign relentlessly. At that time, the cavity mutiny occurred on January 20, 1872, involving a number of workers and some detachment. This was caused by the revocation of the privilege of shipyards workers to be exempted from forced labor and paying tribute to governo-general de izquiedo. The mutineers included indios, mestizos, and criollos. Trhey were led by a military sergeant named la Madrid. They killed some Spanish soldiers in the fort. The governor of cavity informed the governor-general in manila about the rebellion by telegraph. The governor-general was alarmed and sent an expedition to put down the rebellion. The government, believing it to be rebellion, ordered the arrest of Fathers Jose Burgos, Jacinto Zamora, Mariano Gomez, Pedro Dandan,Toribio Del Pilar, Mariano Sevilla, Agustin Mendoza, Jose Guevara and other. Among the civilians arrested were PedrCarillo, Antonio Rigidor, Juaquin Pardo de Tavera, and others. They were sentence to be banished to Guam while Gomez, Burgo, and Zamora sentenced to death. THE EXECUTION OF GomBurZa It was on February 17, 1872 when the three priest marched from fort Santiago to Bagumbayan field now Luneta.
The government failed to prove convincingly that the accused were really connected with the January mutiny. The governor-general fails his promise of presenting documents to prove that the three were guilty of rebellion, and they were sentenced to death by garrote, which to other is a mutiny. The Spaniards who were present, thinking that the Filipinos were preparing to rise in revolt. The importance of execution of the three priests rested on the fact that the Filipinos who witnessed the execution began to think not as individual Filipinos but as one Filipino, they suspected that because they belong to a different place, the Spaniards who had always felt the superior over the Filipinos they began to feel necessity for unity. Rizal who was eleven years old at that time would later dedicate his novel El Filibusterismo to the memory of the three martyred priest. The execution of Gomez, Burgos, Zamora may have halted the secularization movement but not its advocasy for Filipinazation of the parishes. The Spanish government with its cruel measures, continued to frighten the Filipinos into submission. Nevertheless, the seeds of Filipino nationalism had been planted on fertile soil.