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Chapter 9 - Final

Decision-Making & Problem-Solving

Katherine Heng

on 28 March 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 9 - Final

Both are described as similar processes; they require making a decision or a series of decisions. Decision-Making
Problem-Solving 1. Defining the Problem 2. Examine Constraints On the Context
of the Goals 3. Consider Searching Out
Alternatives 4. Initiate the Decision 5. Develop the Decision 6. Evaluating the Decision Stages of
Problem-Solving Identify a goal to achieve and a problem or set of problems that
stand in the way of reaching that goal. External: those imposed on the decision-making process Internal: those integral
to the problem Other resources that the group or individual has to use for the process
Knowledge base
Energy Limitations on the Implementation Government regulations
Physical location
Technical or design difficulties Any number of other constraining
factors and circumstances Gathering as much information from as many sources as possible.
Digesting and synthesizing that information.
Forming it into a workplace shape that responds to the problem at hand. After consideration of the possible alternatives, we finally have to make a choice. Develop a plan of action and
implement the decision we have made. Evaluate the results, or consequences, of our decision
and of the process itself. This completes a "feedback loop" which informs
our decison-making the next time. D.E.C.I.D.E Define Examine Consider Initiate Develop Evaluate Patterns of
Groups Group Composition Group Process Membership composition should reflect the larger social and organization environment in which it takes part, as well as the nature of the problem and the context in which it occurs. First Second Third Address the external constraints
on the group process itself. Address the external constraints
on the group process itself. Address the external constraints
on the group process itself. The Decision-Making
Process Problem Identification and Information Gathering identify and specify the symptoms gather information on the size and scope research the seriousness urgency and implications look for causes and underlying conditions of the problem Refining Goals Refining Alternatives Making the Choice Implementing Decisions Identify the criteria that would indicate successful achievement of the goals. Rank-order the criteria in importance and specify the criteria that must be met. Identify which criteria must be met and which are less essential, refine the goals, based on criteria, to be satisfactory, realistic, and achievable. Suggest as many alternative solutions as possible. Refine and combine alternative solutions. Evaluate the alternative decisions or solutions using the goal criteria and rank-order the solutions based on how well they meet the criteria. Does any one solution combination meet all criteria that must be met?
If not, reevaluate solutions and goals. Are goals achievable? Are there other solutions?
If yes, does the solution meet goals that should and can be met?
If not, is there another solution or set that can met these criteria as well? Does the solution create additional problems? How can they be resolved? Develop a procedure for implementing the solution that best
meets criteria and evaluate the implementation.
Is it achievable?
Too expensive?
Does it take too long?
Evaluate the decision or solution. Identify criteria and method to evaluate the decision once it is implemented.
Does the decision or solution accomplish its goals?
Implement an ongoing evaluation plan that occurs at regular intervals. Katherine Heng Lucy Cook Sarah Delaney Lucy Chambers Jessica Loftis Chapter 9 Chapter 9
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