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respiration

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Danielle Bloomfield

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of respiration

Respiratory
System

Three processes of the
respiratory system


1. Pulmonary Ventilation


2. External respiration




3. Internal respiration
breathing into and out of the lungs
exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood
exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and muscle tissues
processes 1 and 2 are linked with the third through the pulmonary and systemic circulations
the route of atmospheric air to the site of gaseous exchange
air enters through the nose and mouth which are connected through the nasal and oral cavities to the pharynx

air then passes through to the larynx (and food to the esophagus)

Air passes through the larynx (the voicebox), and then to the trachea, the "windpipe".

The main brochial passageways (bronchi) subdivide in the lungs into smaller and
smaller airways

the air then finally travels to the individual air sacs called alveoli, where oxygen
enters the bloodstream and gaseous exchange takes place.
The Nose and Mouth
here, the air is
filtered
through the aid of hair and mucus

and the air is
warmed
The Pharynx
both
food and air
pass through the pharynx

at the bottom of the pharynx air is directed to the
larynx
and food is directed to the oesophagus
The
Larynx
commonly known as the
voicebox

here there is a flap of
elastic cartilage
called the
epiglottis
that covers the opening of the larynx when swallowing to avoid food entering the lungs
The
Trachea
commonly known as the
windpipe

this is kept
open
and
protected
by C shaped cartilage

it is also lined with
mucus secreted and cilated cells
which remove foreign particles

The trachea then divides at the bottom into the left and right
bronchi
The
Bronchi
the left and right bronchi direct air into the corresponding
lungs

these then subdivide into
bronchioles
deep into the lungs
The
Bronchioles
These are not reinforced with cartilage but do contain
smooth muscle

When this muscle contracts (ASTHMA ATTACK) it can create
breathing difficulties


These branches then lead to the
alveolar air sacs
which contain
alveoli
Alveoli
There are approximately 300 million alveoli in the lungs (surface area of 10 tennis courts)

The walls of each alveoli is extremely
thin
(single cell) to reduce the distance for gas exchange and they are surrounded by
capillaries

The
exchange of O2 and CO2
happens between the alveolus and capillary bed
Pulmonary Pleura
these are double walled sacs of two membranes containing a fluid which helps reduce the risk of friction between the ribs and the lungs during breathing
The Mechanics of Respiration
5 STEPS
Step 1
Muscles
- contract or relax to cause ...
Step 2
Movement
- of the ribs, sternum and abdomen which causes...
Thoracic cavity volume
- either increases or decreases which in turn causes...
Lung air pressure
- increase or decreases which causes
Step 5
Step 3
Step 4
Inspiration or expiration
- air is breathed in or out
Respiratory volumes
moving air in and out of the lungs is called VENTILATION

the amount of air moved per minute = minute ventilation
V
.
Respiratory volumes
Tidal Volume
the amount of air taken in or out
Frequency
V
T
f
E
rate of respiratory
at rest
average of 12-15 breaths
average amount of air
=500ml / 0.5L
Minute Ventilation = Tidal Volume x Frequency
V
E
.
=
f
V
T
x
using the average respiratory values work out what a persons minute ventilation would be at rest
and is measured in litres
Minute Ventilation = Tidal Volume x Frequency
0.5 x 12 = 6 litres
0.5 x 13 = 6.5 litres
0.5 x 14 = 7 litres
0.5 x 15 = 7.5 litres
What happens during exercise?
the volume of air inhaled increases, due to the rate of breathing increasing
it is not uncommon for some males to reach up to 180 litres of air breathed in one minute

e.g

45 (breaths) x 3.5 (litres) = 157.5 Litres (ventilation per minute)
external
internal
ACTIVITY
Put cards into order using the 5 steps for inspiration and expiration
tidal volume
INCREASES UP TO AROUND 3-4 LITRES
frequency
INCREASES 40-60 BREATHS
minute ventilation
INCREASES VALUES UP TO 120L

Gaseous Exchange
this refers to the exchange of of oxygen and carbon dioxide through a process called DIFFUSION
a movement of gases from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
the difference between a high and low pressure is called Diffusion Gradient - the bigger the gradient the greater the diffusion
Partial Pressure
the pressure a gas exerts within a mixture of gases
gases always move from an area of high partial pressure to an area of low partial pressure
inspired air entering the alveoli has a
HIGH
PP

of
O2
and a
LOW
PP of
CO2
deoxygenated blood has a
LOW
PP of
O2

and a
HIGH
PP of
CO2
Alveoli Respiration
EXTERNAL
Muscle Tissue Respiration
INTERNAL
capillary blood has a high PP of O2
muscle cells have a low PP of O2 having used up the oxygen for energy production
CO2 is given off as a by product
Task

Create your own exam style question and mark scheme on any of the following topics

- mechanics of respiration
- internal/external respiration
- respiratory volumes
- the route of atmospheric air to the lungs
- gaseous exchange
Breathing During
Exercise

Mechanics of breathing
as you begin to exercise the demand for O2 increases. This increase of depth and rate of breathing, means that additional muscles are needed during exercise for the mechanical process to happen quicker.
sternocleidomastoid
scalenes
Inspiration
all of the following muscles contract
during...
pectoralis minor
expiration
INTERNAL
intercostals
rectus abdominus obliques
Activity
consider...
if the
internal
intercostal muscles contract during expiration, which intercostal muscles contract for inspiration and relax during expiration?
Changes to Lung Volumes
Gaseous Exchange
both external in internal respiration increase during exercise in order to increase the supply of O2
haemoglobin- these are the molecules inside red blood cells to carry O2
an oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve informs us of the amount of haemoglobin saturated with O2
haemoglobin that is fully loaded/saturated with O2 is termed ASSOCIATION, wheras O2 unloading from haemoglobin is called DISSOCATION
in a nutshell...
in the lungs the PP of O2 is 100mmHg, the percentage of O2 saturation at this level is 98%
at rest
the PP of O2 in the muscle tissues is 40mmHg, the percentage of O2 saturation at this level is 75%
what happens to the remaining 25%?
why the curve shifts to the right
or in other words increasing the dissociation of O2 from the red blood cells to the muscle tissue
1. Increase in blood and muscle temperature

2. Decrease in partial pressure of O2 in the muscle, increasing the O2 diffusion gradient

3. Increase in partial pressure of CO2, increasing the CO2 diffusion gradient

4. Bohr Effect- (increase in acidity)
By the end of this lesson you will know and understand
how the mechanics of breathing and lung volumes change during exercise
the changes in gaseous exchange due to exercise
what the oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve is
RCC
The Respiratory Control Centre (RCC)
regulates pulmonary respiration(breathing)
the respiratory system is under INVOLUNTARY CONTROL
2 centres located here
inspiratory centre
expiratory centre
AT REST
The inspiratory centre
is responsible the rhythmic cycle of inspiration and expiration (12-15 breaths)
impulses are sent to the respiratory muscles
phrenic nerve - diaphragm
intercostal nerve- external intercostals
DURING EXERCISE
The inspiratory centre
Stimulation is increased and additional
inspiratory muscles are stimulated
THE EXPIRATORY CENTRE IS INACTIVE
what are these additional muscles ?
The expiratory centre
Stimulation of the expiratory muscles causing a forced expiration which reduces the duration of inspiration
Factors that affect the neural control of breathing
-emotions
-pain
-respiratory irritants
RECEPTORS
Chemoreceptors- increase PP of CO2
decrease PP of O2
decrease in PH

Proprioceptors- located in the muscles/joints
sends info on muscle movement

Thermoreceptors- increase in blood temperature
(these three stimulate the inspiratory centre)

Baroreceptors- sends info to expiratory centre
on the extent of lung inflation
by the end of this lesson you will ...
know and understand what role the RCC plays during respiration

what factors affect/influence the control of breathing

be able to use this knowledge and understanding for an exam question
5 out of 5 = A
4 out of 5 = B
3 out of 5 = C
2 out of 5 = D
1 out of 5 = E
0 out of 5 = U
The effects of altitude on the respiratory system
by the end of this lesson you will ....

know and understand the effects of altitude on the respiratory system
you must firstly know that a high altitude of above 1500m decreases the partial pressure (PP) of oxygen in the atmospheric air this is called hypoxic
What do you think happens to the respiratory system when training at a high altitude?
WHAT IS
ITS' ROLE?
increase in erythropoietin (EPO) which stimulates an increase in RBC production
increase in capillarisation
upon return to sea level there is an increase in VO2 max
increase aerobic based performance
onset of blood lactate accumulation
THE EFFECTS
explain the effects of altitude on the respiratory system and how these effects impact on the overall performance of an endurance athlete performing at altitude? (5)
5 out of 5 = A
4 out of 5 = B
3 out of 5 = C
2 out of 5 = D
1 out of 5 = E
0 out of 5 = U
Respiratory adaptations to exercise
the effect of
TRAINING
on the respiratory system
RESPIRATORY
STRUCTURES
BREATHING
MECHANICS
- increased alveoli (increasing surface area for diffusion)
-increased elasticity of respiratory structures
-increased longevity of the structure efficiency
increased efficiency of respiratory muscles
increase in strength, power and endurance of respiratory muscles
RESPIRATORY
VOLUMES
Tidal volume increases during maximal exercise
respiratory frequency decreases at rest but increases during exercise
maximal minute ventilation increases from 120L to 150L
DIFFUSION
diffusion unchanged at rest
increase in pulmonary diffusion during maximal exercise
Starter
complete the meanings for all of the following
VO2
minute ventilation
respiratory frequency
partial pressure
diffusion
Bohr effect
tidal volume
thoracic cavity volume
Learning Objective
by the end of this lesson you will know and understand the respiratory adaptations to physical activity
The net effect of all of the above efficiency improvements is that VO2 max and the lactate threshold increase. Both of which improve performance
Performance benefits
- aerobic performance during a more intense work rate is increased and prolonged

-delay fatigue during anaerobic activity

-increases duration of performance due to a reduced effort needed for sub-max work

-a healthy and more efficient respiratory system promotes a lifelong involvement in a healthy and active lifestyle
Exam Questions
the start of anaerobic work
Respiratory system
and
active lifestyles

Asthma
symptoms
-narrowing of airways
-coughing
-wheezing
-breathlessness
-mucus production
triggers
-drying of the airways
-bronchoconstriction (exercise induced asthma (EIA))
-exhaust fumes
-air pullutants
-dust
-hair and pollens
EIA is high in
-cold weather
-ice surface sports
-chlorine in water
treatment/prevention
-BRONCHODILATORS inhaled medication (reliever) which relaxes the muscles around the airways
-CORTICOSTEROIDS a preventer which improves exercise lung function
- a sufficient warm up
- reducing salt within your diet
- a limited amount of caffiene
Smoking
Health Effects
- impaired natural development of teens
- impaired lung function and diffusion rates
- increased risk of respiratory disease, damage, infections and symptoms below
- ASTHMA
- IRRITATES RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES
- EMPHYSEMA
- CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
- CANCERS
- SHORTNESS OF BREATH
- COUGHING
- WHEEZING
- MUCUS IN THE LUNGS
Performance Effects
- decreases efficiency of VO2 max
-decreases efficiency of O2 supply to muscles
by the end of this lesson you will...

-know and understand the effects asthma and smoking have on your respiratory system and performance in physical activity
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