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The Oil and Gas Insdustry

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aaron mendoza

on 14 August 2015

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Transcript of The Oil and Gas Insdustry

Upstream
Midstream
Downstream
Finding oil and gas
Production
Drilling
Pipes and pipelines
Working offshore
Upstream
Oil and natural gas industry:
Upstream
Upstream process
Exploration
Drilling

Conclusion

Vital to many industries, and are of importance
to the maintenance of industrial civilization.

Upstream

Midstream

Downstream

Find and produce
Exploration

Scientific study rock and test.
Geologists: look for rocks.
Geotechnicians: prepares rock and water.
Physicist: heat, light and sound.

Seismic Method
Geological Method
Upstream Process
Drilling
Drilling a long hole
Conclusion

Exploration and drilling process are high-risk, and expensive.

Upstream sector is the most complex of all of the oil and natural gas industry.

Oil field
Production
Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen and found in crude oil and natural gas. Hydrocarbons are formed from the remains of marine animals and plants that lived in shallow inland seas, died, and drifted to the bottom. The term petroleum is used as a common denotation for crude oil (mineral oil) and  natural gas, the hydrocarbons from which various oil and gas products are made.

Development
Pipes & Pipelines
Finding Oil and Gas
What is oil?

Oil and gas is composed of compressed hydrocarbons.  It was formed millions of years ago in a process that began when plant and animal remains were covered by very deep layers of sediment – minute particles of rock and minerals.  



PIPELINES

Pipelines are generally the most economical way to transport large quantities of oil, refined oil products or natural gas

Passive Seismic
PIPELINES ACROSS COUNTRIES
Reflective Seismic
A hydrophone is a microphone that can be used underwater to record or listen to sounds.

In this case this type of hydrophone is used to locate oil traps.
PIPELINES PARTS

Seismic survey is the method used by different oil and gas companies to find and measure oil and gas reservoirs.

The seismic sources use compressed air to produce acoustic energy. The hydrophones capture the returning sound waves.
The hydrophones convert the waves into electrical signals. A machine reads the signals and convert them into 3D maps.
MIDSTREAM
Pipelines across the cities, pipes support
Pipelines across the cities
Drilling
Typical Drilling Facilities
Drill bits
3D Drill stress points animation
Drilling Crew
Working Offshore
Types of platforms
OFFSHORE OIL & GAS INDUSTRY
PARTS OF AN OFFSHORE PLATFORM
Conventional fixed
Semi-submersibles
SPAR
TLP
FPS
Transcanada Natural Gas Pipelines
Mexican pipelines:
Guadalajara (Jalisco) 193 miles
Tamazunchale (SLP) 81 miles

Under construction (Sinaloa):
Topolobampo-Mazatlan

Topolobampo-Chihuahua (El Encino)

Working offshore
Diameter of a pipeline
Chemical Exposure
Chemical risks are common on oil rigs. Many of the drilling and oil processing plants diffuse extremely hazardous chemicals into the atmosphere most of the time.

Machine Hazards
Amongst all the industries that uses hazardous machines and equipment, the oil and gas industry arguably ranks first.
Diameters of 24” and 48”
Biggest hazards on a platform
How do companies clean the pipelines
Fire And Explosion
Oil and gas rigs house a lot of highly combustible chemicals and gas, which means there is always a chance of a fire breaking out or explosions.

Fall Hazards
Oil and gas rig workers have to work on elevated platforms. Lack of proper fall protection systems and safety wear can result in fatal falls.
Pipeline inspection gauge
“Pig”
You arrive by helicopter. But first , you receive safety training Offshore work is more hazardous than onshore work

Going offshore
One is the accomodation area , where the workers eat and sleep.

Another is the well head or drilling area . That contains the derrick , well head, and drilling equipment .

Crude oil comes up to the well heads with gas water on it . So it goes to the other things.

All the areas provides these : a generator makes electricity , and there is equipment for heating , ventilation , air conditioning , and water distribution.
A typical pruduction platform has four main areas above the water:
Offshore oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico is a major source of oil and natural gas in the United States. The western and central Gulf of Mexico,

The Cantarell fiel
is Pemex Exploratión y Productión's heavy oilfield, located 100km off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico platforms
Company
Design and engineering services
Drilling services
Electric services
Hydraulic sevices
Marine Seismic Source
Oil Production
Oil Reserves
Rig Manager
Driller
Derrickman
Motorman
Roughnecks
Roustabouts
Oil reserves
Introduction
Conclusion
Oil Production
How does it work?
Pipeline
Rail
Barge
Truck
Storage
wholesale marketing of refined products and crude petroleum
General view
The oil is kept in motion by pump stations along the pipeline, and usually flows at speed of about 1 to 6 metres per second (3.3 to 19.7 ft/s)
For natural gas, pipelines are constructed of carbon steel The gas is pressurized by compressor stations and is odorless unless mixed with a mercaptan odorant where required by a regulating authority.
Oil
Gas
Coal & Ore
Alcohol fuel
Hydrogen
Ammonia
"Advanced Pipeline Applications"
Remote Terminal Units (RTU)
that transfer the field data to a
central location in real time using
communication systems,
such as satellite channels,
microwave links,
or cellular phone connections.
The oil companies are divided in 2 types of companies

International oil company (IOC)
National oil company (NOC)
International oil company (IOC)
National oil company (NOC)
Full transcript