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Propaganda

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Daniel Burke

on 28 May 2014

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Transcript of Propaganda

Propaganda
History
propaganda has been used all throughout history
can be traced back to Ancient Greece
at these early moments in history, the act of misleading others to support a cause did not have a name
the word propaganda became popular around 1914 during the start of WW1
propaganda is considered a literature
Government


Overview
Propaganda is derogatory Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
7 Techniques

Beginnings of Propaganda
Propaganda can be traced back to around 480 BCE
Ancient Greek commander Themistocles used a misleading campaign to deceive Xerxes
this allowed Themistocles to defeat his enemy
Around 1588 after the Spanish Armada, both Philip II and Queen Elizabeth used propaganda against Spain
1622: Pope Gregory XV created The Congregation for the Propagation of Faith (goal: spread faith)
World War One
Propaganda became well known and used around the beginning of World War 1
This allowed the governments to hide truths from their citizens, only exposing what was desirable
War Propaganda existed through words and/or posters
Transfer
Is the method that builds a connection between things that are not logically connected.

Example: An advertisement shows a happy family drinking a certain kind of milk. The advertisers want to associate happiness with that certain brand of milk
Does Propaganda Exist in America?
Bandwagon
This technique encourages people to act because everyone else is doing it.


Example: Doing something because all of your friends are doing it, even though you know nothing about it
The propaganda Model of media behavior advanced by Herman and Chomsky (1988) is analytically and conceptually concerned to theorize the intersection between communicative power and political economy in contemporary capitalist society, specifically the United States (US).
Invention of the word:
propaganda is an ancient honorable word
religious activities concerning propaganda commanded respectful attention
the word resurfaced around the beginning of World War One
the United States used "propaganda" to criticize and convict their enemies as evil communists
This is when the word propaganda began to have negative connotations
It's meaning shifted toward "selfish, dishonest, or subversive"
United States
Most American propaganda focused on glory, fame and heroism to pull men into enlisting
Made men feel like it was their duty
Also encouraged citizens to support the war by buying war bonds or donating supplies
Russia
Focused on encouraging citizens to buy war bonds to fund the war
Attempted to revive morale when it was at an all time low
war until victory
Great Britain
Their propaganda focused mainly on making men feel guilty, and therefore forcing them into joining the war
Women were encouraged through posters to fill in for men while they were at war
Post WW1
The Institute for Propaganda Analysis
: an institution that taught American's different forms of propaganda and how to recognize them
7 Techniques: Bandwagon, Card Stacking, Emotional Appeals, Loaded Words, Name Calling, Stereotype, and Transfer
World War II
: American propaganda focused on exposing the Axis Powers (especially Hitler) as evil and raising morality
Propaganda toward women encouraged working in factories and taking over the men's jobs.
Name-Calling
Is labeling intended to arouse powerful negative feelings.


Example: A speaker might ask you to vote against a candidate because that candidate is a "tree-hugger."
Card-Stacking
Is based on half-truths.

Example: Smoking cigarrates will give you lung cancer.
Stereotype
Is a biased belief about a whole group of people based on insufficient or irrelevant evidence.

Example: Presidents are too interested in profit and personal gain to care about the problems of a single employee.
Loaded Words
Evoke, or draw out, very strong positive or negative attitudes toward a person, group, or idea.

Example: Ashley describes herself as "confident" and Chris as "pushy."
Emotional Appeals
Statements used to arouse emotional reactions, can be appropriately in persuasion.

Example: A local humane society may tell moving stories in order for people to feel emotionally about the animals
THEN
vs
NOW
The US propaganda focused mostly on raising morality and supporting the multiple wars it has faced
US now mainly focuses on gaining support for up and coming plans and future laws
Propaganda was posted on billboards, street posts, buildings, etc. or posted in newspaper
Thanks to technology, propaganda can now be spread over the internet (twitter, facebook, ads etc.) Other forms include flyers, mail, and verbally
Main topic revolved around war and liberty, did not stray far from this idea
Propaganda topics can be very controversial in present times (abortion/homosexuality)
Clearly, propaganda has evolved into a more personal, yet political government procedure
Images have shifted from blunt depictions of what "must" be done into more symbolic figures that make one think
The task of propaganda has become making the viewer process what they see on their own
After they most likely over think what they see, a strong opinion is formed in agreement with the image
Product of Government
Propaganda
Social Issues
Propaganda can serve to rally people behind a cause, but often at the cost of exaggerating, misrepresenting, or even lying about the issues in order to gain that support. Examples of issues are...
1. Decontextualizing violence: focusing on the irrational without looking at the reasons for unresolved conflicts and polarization.
2. Dualism: reducing the number of parties in a conflict to two, when often more are involved. Stories that just focus on internal developments often ignore such outside or “external” forces as foreign governments and transnational companies.
3. Manicheanism: portraying one side as good and demonizing the other as “evil.”
4. Armageddon: presenting violence as inevitable, omitting alternatives.


5. Focusing on individual acts of violence while avoiding structural causes, like poverty, government neglect and military or police repression.
6. Confusion: focusing only on the conflict arena (i.e., the battlefield or location of violent incidents) but not on the forces and factors that influence the violence.
7. Excluding and omitting the bereaved, thus never explaining why there are acts of revenge and spirals of violence.
8. Failure to explore the causes of escalation and the impact of media coverage itself.
9. Failure to explore the goals of outside interventionists.

Perspectives
1.
Functionalism:
advertising promotes consumption = functional in maintaining the econmoy, employment levels and standards of living
The range of different products and advertisements provides consumers with more choice = allowed to act as free individuals and chose what they want to

2.
Conflict theory:

The power of the advertisers creates a vicious cycle of propaganda = advertising dollars control the TV programs
ex: the news services (therefore news takes the forms which will attract the highest ratings.)
This causes negativity and forms biases toward elite nations and elite people.
News programs become a form of hidden propaganda driven by the advertising dollar.
News stories about the elite/rich are mostly positive stories
On the other hand, poorer countries and poorer people become newsworthy only in negative stories about their criminality or their tragedies.



Corporations
They use propaganda to evoke emotions

They use it in order to sell their products

They use group think: On television the actors will nod their head in agreement with the propaganda and the audience will nod their head as well.
Transfer Loaded Words
Bandwagon Emotional Appeals
Name-Calling
Card-Stacking
Stereotype
Works Cited
Public Speaking Textbook: Chapter 4
http://alethonews.wordpress.com
http://www.historians.org/about-aha-and-membership/aha-history-and-archives/gi-roundtable-series/pamphlets/what-is-propaganda
http://www.physics.smu.edu/pseudo/Propaganda/history.html
http://worldwaripropaganda.wordpress.com/
http://www.historians.org/about-aha-and-membership/aha-history-and-archives/gi-roundtable-series/pamphlets/what-is-propaganda/the-story-of-propaganda
http://changingminds.org/techniques/propaganda/propaganda_history.htm
http://www.weeklystandard.com/blogs/government-propaganda-then-and-now_771439.html
http://www.globalissues.com
http://www.academia.edu
1) Which one is not one of the 7 techniques?
A. Name-Calling
B. Transfer
C. Advertising
D. Bandwagon

2) When did the word Propaganda become popular?
A. 1914 during WW1
B. War of 1812
C. At the start of the Great Depression
D. Beginning of WW2

3) Which one of these choices is an example of propaganda?
A. Mutualism
B. Dualism
C. Darwinism
D. Socialism
4) Which perspective connects back to promoting consumption?
A. Functionalism
B. Interactionism
C. Conflict Theory
D. Theoretical Perspective
5) Which 2 sociologists founded the 2 perspectives of propaganda?
A. Durkeim: Malthus
B. Mead: Marx
C. Durkheim: Mead
D: Marx: Durkheim
Quiz:
Superior Perspective
CONFLICT THEORY
As Marx stated, a class conflict between the wealthy and poor exists, just under the surface
A privileged few (the advertising companies) control societies power and resources
The corporations favor the wealthy because they have the money to support them
Negative propaganda (especially foreign countries) forms a conflict between the two classes (countries)
Full transcript