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Transcript of Platonic Dualism
Adversity doesn't build character...it reveals it
Mathematical knowledge [or learning Greek or Latin or English grammar] adds vigor to the mind, frees it from prejudice, credulity and superstition
"Some people choose to be warm and fuzzy," says an official speaking on condition of anonymity. "Some people just choose to get the job done." As the binary, oppositional logic that has traditonally organized scientific inquiry ceases simply to be taken for granted, its institutional corollary, the procedures by which the disciplines and divisions of science and "scholarship" have demarcated their domains and consolidated their authority, is being subjected to renewed scrutiny. Samuel Weber
Institutions and Interpretation The same situation confronts the physicist everywhere; whenever he penetrates to the atomic or electronic level in his analysis, he finds things acting in a way for which he can assign no cause, for which he can never assign a cause, and for which the concept of cause has no meaning....This means nothing more nor less than that the law of cause and effect must be given up. P.W. Bridgman
The Logic of Modern Physics To start with, we must become clear about the nature of the total phenomenon: appearance plus statement. There are not two acts---one, noticing a phenomenon; the other, expressing it with the help of the appropriate statement--but only one....The teaching procedures both shape the 'appearance', or 'phenomenon', and establish a firm connection with words, so that finally the phenomena seems to speak for themselves without outside help or extraneous knowledge. [It has been said] that the quality and structure of sensations (perceptions), or at least the quality and structure of those sensations which enter the body of science, is independent of their linguistic expression. I am very doubtful about even the approximate validty of this assumption. Paul Feyerabend Against Method But in actual fact there is no fundamental dividing line
between the content of the individual psyche and formulated
ideology....An experience of which an individual is conscious
is already ideological and, therefore, from a scientific point
of view, can in no way be a primary and irreducible datum;
rather, it is an entity that has already undergone ideological
processing of some specific kind. V.N. Voloshinov
Freudiansim By elimination of what it is senseless to explore, what the special sciences can really explore emerges all the more clearly: the complex interdependence of the elements. While groups of such elements may be called things or bodies, it turns out that there are strictly speaking no isolated objects: they are only fictions for a preliminary enquiry, in which we consider strong and obvious links but neglect weaker and less noticeable ones The same distinction of degree give rise also to the opposition of world to ego: an isolated ego exists no more than an isolated object: both are provisional fictions of the same kind....For the scientist is not so fortunate as to possess unshakeable principles, he has become accustomed to regarding even his safest and best-founded views as provisional and liable to modification through experience. Indeed, the greatest advances and discoveries have been possible only through this attitude. Ernst Mach
Knowledge and Error Learning and memory are conditioned, at every level, by social and historical agencies. Information is neither in substance nor conceptually value-free. Ideology, economic and class circumstance, the historical moment do much to define the content, the relative hierarchies, the sheer visibility of knowledge as knowledge....The cortex and the 'world outside' in which language can be seen as a form of work, of social production, of economic and ideological exchange, cannot be meaningfully separated.
After Babel Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. It is quite an illusion to imagine that one adjusts to reality essentially without the use of language and that language is merely an incidental means of solving specific problems of communication or reflection. The fact of the matter is that the "real world" is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group....The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached. Edward Sapir
Culture, Language and Personality Thought development is determined by language, i.e., by the linguistic tools of thought and by the sociocultural experiences of the child. The development of logic in the child, as Piaget's studies have shown, is a direct function of his socializing speech. The child's intellectual growth is contingent on his mastering the social means of thought that is language. Lev Vygotsky
Thought and Language It should not, in the present intellectual atmosphere, be necessary laboriously to argue the position that every form of practice, including the literary-critical kind, implies and presupposes a form of theory; that even the most formalizing kinds of literary or textual analysis carry a theoretical charge whose denial unmasks it as ideological...Indeed, no working model of the functioning of language, the nature of communication or of the speech act, and the dynamics of formal and stylistic change is conceivable which does not imply a whole philosophy of history. We may suggest that...ideology is not something which informs or invests symbolic production; rather the [act] is itself ideological. Fredric Jameson
The Political Unconscious Let us assume then that there is a language faculty and that this faculty includes at least a cognitive system, that is, a system that stores information. There have to be systems that access that information, the performance systems. Now, a factual question arises: to what extent are the systems that access the information stored in the language faculty part of the language faculty? That is, to what extent are the performance systems language-dedicated themselves?...To some extent, at least, the performance systems seem to be part of the language faculty.
Noam Chomsky 19th-century science, for one thing, however much it might disturb and upset older notions, was always able to fall back upon one fundamental and reassuring conception--that a definite cause-and-effect relationship exists in all the operations of physical nature. But the researches in mathematical physics and electromechanics in the 20th-century by Planck, Heisenberg, Einstein, and others, have undermined this very cornerstone of scientific thought. Harry Elmer Barnes
An Intellectual and Cultural History of the Western World ...can we bring ourselves to realize just how overwhelmingly much of what we mean by "reality" has been built up for us through nothing but our symbol systems?...What is our "reality" for today but all this clutter of symbols about the past, combined with whatever things we know mainly through maps, magazines, newspapers, and the like about the present?...And however important to us is the tiny sliver of reality each of us has experienced firsthand, the whole overall "picture" is but a construct of our symbol systems. Kenneth Burke
Language as Symbolic Action Epistemology Ideology Stories we tell ourselves about ourselves to explain our reality.
"That's not our nature and never will be our nature." USC Athletic Director Mike Garrett responding to charges of NCAA violations. Stories we tell ourselves about ourselves to explain our reality.
"That's not our nature and never will be our nature." USC Athletic Director Mike Garrett responding to charges of NCAA violations. res/verba Forensic Rhetoric: Static, binary, agonistic, after-the-fact judging Deliberative Rhetoric: Active, plural, negotiated, contingent Platonic Idealism reification
Habermassification Haunted by the Ghost
of the Binary Thus the genesis of language does not proceed logically in any case, and all the material within and with which the man of truth, the scientist, and the philosopher later work and build, if not derived from never-never land, is a least not derived from the essence of things. Nietzsche
On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Semse ...to allow those who invented or invested in the concepts to retain control over them and present them as "facts" to which the rest of us are obliged to subordinate all our other beliefs is irresponsible, perhaps even cowardly.
This "ethical" dimension inheres in every raising and marshalling of terminological forces because the notion of disciplinary sovereignty and territory is perfectly analogous to political sovereignty and territory. And this raises the issues of the motive behind the modes of argument developed by philosophy/rhetoric.
Stephen R. Yarbrough metaphysical dualism