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Forensic Science

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Nelly Topa

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Forensic Science

By: Nelly Topa Forensic Science Timeline Project Scientists Mathieu Orfila
(1787-1853) Alphonse Bertillon
(1853-1914) Francis Galton
(1822-1911) Leone Lattes
(1887-1954) Albert Osborne
(1858-1946) Hans Gross
(1847-1915) Edmond Locard
(1877-1966) Paul Kirk
(1902-1970) J. Edgar Hoover
(1895-1972) Mathieu Orfila is often called the father of Forensic Toxicology. He was one of the first people to use a microscope to study blood and semen stains. Mathieu was born in Spain but studied and worked in Paris, France. In 1814 he published his first book a Treatise on the detection of poisons. In Paris, Orfilla also worked as a royal physician for Louis XVIII. After retiring from his position as dean of the Faculty of Medicine he was elected president of the Academy of Medicine. Citations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mathieu_Joseph_Bonaventure_Orfila.jpg
Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/orfila_image_2.html>.
"Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (1787–1853)." Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body. National Library of Medicine, 16 Feb. 2006. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/orfila_image_2.html>. Mathieu Orfilla: (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Karl Landsteiner
(1868-1943) Francis Galton: File:Francis Galton 1850s.jpg. 1850s. Wikipedia. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Francis_Galton_1850s.jpg>.
Francis Galton Biography." bio. True Story. A&E Networks, n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/francis-galton-9305647
Francis Galton and Fingerprints. Galton.org. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://galton.org/fingerprinter.html>. Being related to Charles Darwin, Francis spent some of his
life studying naturalism as well. However, Galton studied many other fields like eugenics, meteorology, anthropology, and genetics. In 1892 he published a book called "Finger Prints". It contained proof of the uniqueness of fingerprints and classified them. This book proved to be very useful in Forensic Science. Alphonse Bertillon: Two Bertillon cards depicting Alphonse Bertillon. Flavorwire. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.flavorwire.com/236480/what-did-the-worlds-first-mug-shots-look-like>.
Mensuration de la coudée. Visible Proofs: Forensic View of the Body. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/bertillon.html>.
Alphonse Bertillon (1853–1914)." Visible Proofs: Forensic View of the Body. US National Library of Medicine, Web. 16 Feb. 2006. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/bertillon.html>. Alphonse was born in France. He studied criminology and anthropology and was the first to create a person ID using a series of body measurements. Today this kind of ID is called the mug shot. The Bertillon system relied on the height, width of head, length of foot, personal characteristics such as tattos or birth marks, and many more. Bertillon also devised the first crime scene kit that we still use today. Hans worked as a professor, lawyer, and a judge in Austria.
He opened the first criminological institute in Austria and published a book in 1891 called Criminal Investigation. In this book he proposed to apply science to criminal investigation. Gross also started a journal "Kriminologie" that was published without stopping for at least one hundred years. He is also known for having a conflict with his son that resulted in Hans ordering the police to arrest his son Otto because he was legally incompetent. Hans Gross: "Gross, Hans." eNotes. eNotes, Inc., Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.enotes.com/gross-hans-reference/gross-hans>
Hans Gross. Gross. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.uni-graz.at/uarc1www/uarc1www_geschichte/uarc1www_gr_wissenschaft/uarc1www_gross.htm> Born in Vienna but moved to the United States. In 1901 Landsteiner discovered different blood types. He proposed the idea of antigens and antibodies. Karl also introduced the first three blood groups A, B, and C which was later changed to O. In 1930 he won the Nobel Prize for Medicine. With the help of Alexander Weiner, Landsteiner discovered the RH factor. Karl Landsteiner: "Karl Landsteiner." NNDB. Soylent Communications, Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nndb.com/people/698/000091425/>.
Karl Landsteiner. NNDB. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nndb.com/people/698/000091425/>. An American scientist who wrote the book Questioned Documents. This book made courts realize the importance of forged documents and use them as evidence. His book is still used today and is very important to forensic science. Albert Osborne: "Albert S. Osborne." NNDB. Soylent Communications, Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nndb.com/people/427/000059250/>.
Albert S. Osborne. The American Society of Questioned Document Examiners. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.asqde.org/about/presidents/osborn_as.html>.
Questioned Documents. Amazon.com. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.amazon.com/Questioned-Documents-Albert-S-Osborn/dp/B001AG5JJU>. Leone was an Italian scientist who discovered a procedure in which dried bloodstains could be grouped into blood types (A, B, AB, O). In 1916 he published two cases that showed how important this technique is. Test to determine whether the person has ABO antibodies are called Lattes tests. Leon Lattes: Calvin Goddard
(1891-1955) Leone Lattes 1887-1954. I professori dell'Universita di Pavia. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://prosopografia.unipv.it/index.php?page=view_img&idsoggetto=&idimg=225&i=224>.
"Dr. Lattes’s Forensic Blood-Typing Cases." Blogger.com. Blogger, 8 Apr. 2011. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://csi-forensic-science.blogspot.com/2011/04/dr-lattess-forensic-blood-typing-cases.html> Goddard was highly involved with the ballistics department. He discovered the first comparison microscope. Goddard helped put many criminals in jail because of his technique that determined if a gun had fired a specific bullet. He was also a US Army Colonel. Calvin Goddard: "Colonel Calvin Hooker Goddard (1891-1955)." Calvin H. Goddard. Forensic Technology WAI, Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.goddardaward.com/>.
Calvin Goddard. DailyPic. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://dailypicl.tumblr.com/post/3603853185/calvin-a-goddard-pioneered-research-into-firearms>. Locard was born in Lyons, France where he set up a forensic lab. In Paris he worked with Alphonse Bertillon to work on the criminal identification project. He formulated the Locards Exchange Principal which basically stated that the criminal either takes something from the scene or leaves something behind. Edmond Locard: "Locard, Edmond." eNotes. eNotes, Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.enotes.com/locard-edmond-reference/locard-edmond>.
Edmond Locard: Forensic Rock Star. Blogger.com. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://coldcasesquad.blogspot.com/2012/06/edmond-locard-forensic-rock-star.html>. US Scientist who applied biochemistry to forensics. Kirk also participated in the Manhatan project. He supported the Locards exchange principal and was so involved in supporting it that people would sometimes mistake him for Edmond Locard. In 1953 he published a hand book called "Criminal Investigation" which helped with lab techniques. Paul Kirk: "Paul L. Kirk." Wikipedia. Wikipedia Foundations, Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_L._Kirk>.
File:Mgm Paul L Kirk.png. Wikipedia. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mgm_Paul_L_Kirk.png>. J. Edgar Hoover: J. Edgar Hoover was the director of the FBI for most of his life. He was also a lawyer and a criminologist. Hoover was very anti-Communist and had very anti-subversive views. A variety of gang arrest during the 1930s made Hoover a national hero and brought success to the FBI. "J. Edgar Hoover." bio. True Story. A&E Television Networks, Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/j-edgar-hoover-9343398>.
J. Edgar Hoover. Encyclopedia Britannica Kids. Web. 1 Sept. 2012. <http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-11697/J-Edgar-Hoover>. Influential/ Interesting Cases Frye was a young man that murdered an older doctor. He was able to run away in time so that no one knew it was him who had killed the doctor. Then he was arrested for attempting a bank robbery and confessed to both the robbery and the murder. In court he then tried to prove he was lying when he confessed through using a systolic blood pressure deception test. The judge decided that Frye was guilty because the deception test wasn't reliable and his confessions stood. Frye vs. US Back Story Forensic Science impact In the case the judge denied the use of a breaking edge forensic technology because it was not widely accredited in the scientific community. This edict could discourage the production of new technology dealing with forensics because the evidence it provides could be thrown out due to the judge not feeling it was trust worthy enough. Impact on Society Society as a whole was impacted by the decision of the court because it took away a tool that could have been used to prove innocence or guilt. Also adding a burden to the law enforcement, making it harder for them to convict criminals with less evidence against them. Citations Frye vs. US
"Casebriefs: Frye vs. US." Casebriefs: Frye vs. US. Case Briefs, 26 July 2007. Web. 02 Sept. 2012. <http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/evidence/evidence-keyed-to-fisher/lay-opinions-and-expert-testimony/frye-v-u-s/>.
"Expert Witness Testimony Standards The Cases below Are Important in Establishing the Legal Standards for Expert Witnesses. Summaries Have Been Provided, as Well as Links to the Full Text of the Case." Center for Psychiatry and the Law. Stanford School of Medicine, 08 Feb. 2010. Web. 02 Sept. 2012. <http://psychlaw.stanford.edu/expert_cases.html>.
Fisher, James. "Forensic Science." Forensic Science. University of Pennsylvania, 07 Jan. 2008. Web. 02 Sept. 2012. <http://jimfisher.edinboro.edu/forensics/frye.html>.
Maddy & Stew. "Stew's Views." Political Cartoons by Maddy & Stew. Maddy and Stew, 04 Oct. 2009. Web. 02 Sept. 2012. <http://www.stus.com/stus-category.php?cat=CAS>. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Conan Doyle wrote the complete works of Sherlock Holmes which advertised and popularized forensic science. His first book was "A Study in Scarlet" it was published in 1887. An interesting fact about Conan Doyle is that he believed in fairies. His Sherlock Holmes novels have been turned into plays, comic books, cartoons, and have been translated into more than 50 languages. His father was institutionalized because he suffered from severe epilepsy and alcoholism. Doyle's mother was believed to have an affair with a pathologist which inspired Doyle to write his books about a detective. (1850-1930) "Biography of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle." Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. 25 Aug. 2011. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://sirconandoyle.com/biography-of-sir-arthur-conan-doyle/>.
File:Conan doyle.jpg. 1914. Wikipedia. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Conan_doyle.jpg>.
Roberts, Armstrong H.., and Corbis Mysterious ... the new Sherlock Holmes. theguardian. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/jan/17/sherlock-holmes-official-sequel-anthony-horowitz>. Departments Toxicology Odontology Engineering Psychology Anthropology Fingerprint Ballistics Pathology CSI Department Biology This is the study of what kind of effect toxics or chemicals have on the organism. Symptoms and treatments of posioning are also included in this department. Toxicologists test body fluid and blood to determine what happened. They perform a series of drug tests, and look whether the crime scene has been contaminated by something. In order to become a toxicologist you will first need to obtain a bachelors degree in either biology or chemistry. Mathieu Orfilla had a huge impact on this department. He is often called the Father of Forensic Toxicology. "Forensic Toxicology: The Study of Drugs and Their Effects." Forensictoxicology.net. Forensictoxicology.net, Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://www.forensictoxicology.net/>. Since teeth do not decompose it is a very easy clue to identifying a person. Odontology dates back to as early as 66 A.D. It has been used many times in history to define people. World War Two and the New York City World Trade Center bombing are some examples. The examination of teeth can also determine the age of a person. Dr. Paul Revere was the first odontologist in the United States. In 1898 the first treatise on odontology was written by Dr. Amoedo. Oscar Amoedo is known as the Father of Forensic Odontology. "History behind Forensic Odontology." biology online. Biology-Online.org, Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://www.biology-online.org/articles/forensic-odontology/history-behind-forensic-odontology.html>. Forensic engineers work together to determine what has been broken and why at the crime scene. They discover what could have possibly happened to make the object break and make a series of drawings. Forensic engineers have to analyze a lot of their work to prove that their findigns were correct. They become one of the main witnesses in the case. "Forensic engineering." Structural Technology. Structural Technology Corporation, Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://www.structuraltechnology.com/forensics_engineering.htm>. J. McKeen Cattell was the first person to research forensic psychology in 1895. Forensic psychologists provide testimony and analysis in legal court cases. Psychologists sometimes are asked to help figure out whether the criminal has any mental illnesses. It is usually hard for forensic psychologists to do their work because their patients are not there on their own will, unlike patients of regular psychologists. Cherry, Kendra. "History of Forensic Psychology." About.com. About.com, Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/p/forensichistory.htm>.
Cherry, Kendra. "What Is Forensic Psychology?." About.com. About.com, Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://psychology.about.com/od/branchesofpsycholog1/f/forensicpsychology.htm>. Anthropologists study the human body and infer different things that could have possibly happened to it or details such as gender, abnormalities, age at death. They often work with the defense in a criminal case, but they work with the prosecution as well. Forensic anthropologists often work with doctors and medical examiners to help them examine the body. These people work with all sorts of different sciences such as physical science, biology, toxicology, etc. Forensic anthropologists' job is to also look at skeletons and define what has caused the death and sometimes even figure out who the skeleton belongs to. France, Diane L. "Forensic Anthropology ." Wdsworth.com. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. <http://www.wadsworth.com/anthropology_d/special_features/forensics/forensics_index/index.html#head1> Dactylosgraphy is another name for fingerprinting. Sir Francis Galton was the one to truly get into the study of fingerprints. He published a book called "Finger Prints" in 1892. His book contained proof that each finger print is very unique. Sir Henry Edward who was a student of Galton designed a system called the Ten Print System and it is stil used to this day. Examining fingerprints is a very tedious job and requires great skill. Today defining finger prints is much easier with the new and advanced technology. "Fingerprinting." ORACLE Think Quest. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00206/text_nts_fingerprinting.htm>. Ballistics is often referred to as firearms identification. This department is all about finding out what kind of firearm was used and how it was used. Ballistics literally means the path of the bullet. Scientists study it in order to find out how the bullet got inside the body. Calvin Goddard developed the first comparison microscope that made it easier for scientists to study bullets. He also refined the techniques of determining which gun was used in the crime. Lotter, Karen. "What is Forensic Ballistics." suite101. 26 Apr. 2008. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. <http://suite101.com/article/what-is-forensic-ballistics-a51918>. This department is primarily involved in blood testing and DNA. The main purpose of this department is to help identify the person by using either blood or anything else that they could have possibly left behind at the crime scene. Anthropology also falls into this department because it deals with the body and identification. Karl Landsteiner who was an Austrian scientist living in America discovered that human blood could be grouped into different categories. His discovery made it a lot easier for this department to identify a person by blood. Leon Lattes who was an Italian scientist discovered how dried blood stains could be grouped into these same categories which also helped out the Biology department. "What is Forensic Science?." Sam Houston State University. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. <http://forensics.shsu.edu/welcome/fsis.html>. The CSI Department deals with the crime scene as a whole. Investigators analyze, interpret, and document data found at the scene. They use a variety of tools to protect themselves and help with the work. The CSI Department has improved tremendously over the past century. Now it is much easier for investigators to document the stuff because they have access to professional cameras. Also inventions of things such as the magnetic fingerprint brush help because they provide results faster. Schiro , George. "Forensic Science and Crime Scene Investigation: Past, Present, and Future." Forensic Science Resources. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. <http://www.forensicscienceresources.com/CSIPPF.htm>. The Department of Pathology deals with different types of diseases. They determine what caused the death by looking at the corpse. Pathologists are asked to perform autopsies to determine the cause of death. This department is one of the most recent additions to forensic science. It was recognized in the United States in 1959. This department like biology and anthropology is also responsible for identity of the corpse. "Forensic pathology." Wikipedia. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forensic_pathology>. Daubert vs. Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc Back Story Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society Coppolino vs. Florida Back Story Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society The plaintiffs, Daubert and many others, brought Dow Pharmaceuticals to court to sue them for the birth deformities they received when their moms ingested a drug distributed to pregnant women. This case changed the previous precedent on how to determine whether expert scientific testimony was to be used as evidence or not. making the rules more defined letting more things be defined as acceptable evidence. The impact on society was that many more things that were new and not as well known had a chance to be used as evidence which was different under the old system. Duabert vs. Dow Pharmaceuticals
"Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc | Casebriefs." Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc | Casebriefs. Case Briefs, 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/torts/torts-keyed-to-prosser/causation-in-fact/daubert-v-merrell-dow-pharmaceuticals-inc-4/>.
Mahle, Stephen. "Daubert and the Law and Science of Expert Testimony in Business Litigation." Daubert and the Law and Science of Expert Testimony in Business Litigation. Stephen Mahle, 08 Feb. 2010. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.daubertexpert.com/basics_daubert-v-merrell-dow.html>.
"Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579 (1993)." Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579 (1993). Cornell University, 28 June 1993. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/92-102.ZO.html>.
Maddy & Stew. "Law Cartoons." Stu's Views. N.p., 27 Dec. 1997. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. Colin Pitchfork
First Exoneration
on DNA Evidence Back Story Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society Coppolino vs. Florida
"State v. Coppolino." Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://homepages.law.asu.edu/~kayed/talks/se-bassv-98/genacc/copp.htm>.
Carl Anthony COPPOLINO. Murderpedia. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.murderpedia.org/male.C/c/coppolino-carl.htm>. Coppolino who was an
anesthesiologist started an
affair with his neighbor, Marjorie.
Suddenly her husband was found
dead in his sleep. Coppolino and his
wife moved to Florida, and marjorie followed them. Coppolinos wife was soon found dead
in her sleep as well. Carl Coppolino married a rich woman named Mary and Marjorie got upset and told the police about him killing his wife and helping her kill her husband. During the autopsy they found a needle puncture in the buttocks region. After some toxicology testing they found out that Coppolino used a drug that is broken down as soon as it enters the body. Coppolino was convicted of second degree murder and was sentenced for life. This case overlooked the Frye principal because the evidence was clear and they could not ignore it. 1923 1993 1968 Society was impacted because this case proved that the general acceptance principal does not always work and that sometimes evidence is way too obvious to be ignored. Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society Forensic Science Impact Impact on Society He was the first criminal to be exonerated by DNA evidence. He raped and murdered two fifteen year old girls in Great Britain. They took semen samples from the raped bodies and matched the DNA to the possible suspects and found that Colin was the culprit. This gave forensic scientists another tool in determining who was guilty and this was a major incriminating factor in rape cases. This made catching rapist, one of the most hateful fearful crimes in the US, a much easier task. 1988 Colin Pitchfork
"Forensic Cases: Colin Pitchfork, First Exoneration Through DNA." - Explore Forensics. N.p., 12 Mar. 1995. Web. 06 Sept. 2012. <http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/forenisc-cases-colin-pitchfork-first-exoneration-through-dna.html>.
Lambert, Tim. "Colin Pitchfork." Colin Pitchfork. N.p., 14 July 1990. Web. 06 Sept. 2012. <http://localhistories.org/pitchfork.html>.
"Colin Pitchfork, Evidence by DNA Fingerprinting." Colin Pitchfork, Evidence by DNA Fingerprinting. N.p., 21 Mar. 1992. Web. 06 Sept. 2012. <http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/212733/enlarge>. M25 Rapist Back Story The M25 rapist, Antoni Imiela, raped many women from the ages of 10 to 52 throughout England. He left several signs and was eventually tested for a match in DNA evidence that was left at the crime scene and it came back that he was indeed the rapist. This was one of the first cases that combined the use of many different sides of forensic science matching not only DNA evidence with the rapist but also analyzing fabric fibers left over from his railway uniform. This greatly disheartened the society in the fact that such an atrocity could go on for so long but at the same time gave the community confidence that the police were convicting the right people through such secure methods. M25 Rapist
"M25 Rapist Antoni Imiela Quizzed on 1987 Attack." BBC News. BBC, 27 Jan. 2010. Web. 06 Sept. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/8482724.stm>.
"M25 Rapist - A Crimestoppers Success." Fight Crime. N.p., 13 Aug. 2010. Web. 06 Sept. 2012. <http://www.crimestoppers-uk.org/media-centre/case-studies/m25-rapist--a-crimestoppers-success>.
"Forensic Cases: The M25 Rapist, Antoni Imiela." - Explore Forensics. N.p., 05 Sept. 2012. Web. 06 Sept. 2012. <http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/forensic-cases-m25-rapist-antoni-imiela.html>. 2002 Leanne Tiernan 2000 Back Story Leanne Tiernan a teenager, was abducted a mile away from her house on November 26, 2000. She was walking home when the murderer John Taylor grabbed her and took her to his house. After Sexually assaulting her he strangled her. During this case animal DNA was first used as evidence. Also Mitochondrial DNA was used instead of regular DNA testing which proved to be useful because it actually linked to John Taylor. The case of Leanne Tiernan discovered that animal DNA testing can be used to solve cases. Also, it showed that when a research is thoroughly performed and the forensic scientists and the police don't give up a solution will eventually come up. Leanne Tiernan
"JOHN TAYLOR: KILLER IN THE WOODS." Crime&Investigation network. AETN, Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/john-taylor-killer-in-the-woods/crime.html>.
Leanne Tiernan. Wikipedia. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Leanne_Tiernan>. O.J. Simpson Back Story Orenthal James Simpson, a former football player has been accused of a double murder. The victims were his wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and one of her friends, Ronald Goldman. This case is known to be the most publicized case in the entire history of America. Simpson was acquitted after the trial but the Goldman and the Brown families sued him for millions of dollars. 1995 It is believed that the evidence presented by the police and the forensic scientists was false. The police actually put OJ's blood and a couple of other things at the house on purpose just so they could find him guilty and close the case. OJ Simpson was not convicted guilty because he had the best lawyers in the country, a jury that loved him, and a judge that cared more about the media than the case. Because Simpson was a famous football player and not just some random person he received an acquittal. This case shows how rich and famous people can get away with pretty much everything, even murder. O. J. Simpson
"O. J. Simpson murder case." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O._J._Simpson_murder_case#Aftermath_of_trials>.
The O. J. Simpson Trial . Famous American Trial . Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/simpson/simpson.htm>. Ronnie Clark v. Louisiana 1994 Back Story Clark was traveling on a motorcycle form Texas to Florida to speak to his parole officer. He had a 45 caliber semi-automatic pistol with him. Clark got involved in a chase with some of the Louisiana State Troopers and refused to stop. When Clark finally stopped the police officers fired their pistols and shot him three times, one of those resulted in Clark being paralyzed. The police stated that they acted strictly in self defense. This case did not involve a lot of research because it was highly dependent on witnesses who believed that the police officers acted upon self defense. However a lot of analysis and research was performed. Clark v. Louisiana
"Ronnie Clark v State of Louisiana and Troopers Lt Sunseri and Sgt Dorris ." Athena Research and Consulting. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.athenahq.com/Ronnie%20Clark%20v%20State%20of%20LA.htm>. The police troopers did act in self defense and thats how Clark lost the case. Even though there was a lot of research done for this case the self defense won. Erma Prince 2002 Back Story Erma Prince who had undergone a hip surgery was enjoying visits from friends and family when suddenly she died on the next day. The reason of her death was undetermined. Two week after the autopsy has been performed the blood results showed that the body contained propoxyphene. If over dozed this drug can be very dangerous. Prince's granddaughter was a prime suspect and when the toxicology results proved to be inaccurate she was found guilty and sentenced to 55 years in prison. The Toxicology and Biology Departments were highly involved in this case although their results proved to be inaccurate. This case set a precedent for other cases that involve these two departments because now they are more careful when they perform autopsy. The Erma Prince made some people wonder how good of a job the researchers are actually doing. They started to question them and asked the doctors to check their research. Erma Prince
"Expert Forensic Testimony Proves Key to Homicide Case." AIT Laboratories. AIT, Inc, Web. 6 Aug. 2012. <http://www.aitlabs.com/propoxyphene-homicide-forensic-case.aspx>. Hyo Jung Jin
Elvidge, Suzanne. "Forensic Cases: The Woman in the Suitcase." Explore Forensics. 25 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/forensic-cases-woman-suitcase.html>.
Police examine 'suitcase death' link. BBC News. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/1750341.stm>. 2002 Hyo Jing Jun Back Story A womans remains were found in a suitcase. The Police could not identify the woman for a long time but then they determined that this woman was Hyo Jing Jun, 21 years of age. The Korean Embassy linked this murder with another very similar to it that happened in London. Many Forensic departments were involved in this case. Because there weren't any witnesses the case had to go entirely off of observations and evidence found at the crime scene. The Korean Embassy helped link the case with another similar to it. This helped researchers and scientists study her case.
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