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Chapter 9 Section 2 Manifest Destiny

Increasing numbers of people move west and use the idea of manifest destiny to justify settling the land.

James Eskew

on 9 January 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 9 Section 2 Manifest Destiny

9-2 Manifest Destiny
LEARN ABOUT the lure of the West and the idea of manifest destiny
TO UNDERSTAND why Americans moved West in growing numbers
Terms & Names
manifest destiny

Santa Fe Trail

Oregon Trail


Joseph Smith

Brigham Young

Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
The 19th century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory.
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico, used by traders in the early and mid 1800s.
members of a church founded by Joseph Smith and his associates in 1830.
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Portland, Oregon, used by settlers, missionaries, and farmers traveling to the Oregon Territory.
the founder of the Latter Day Saints movement and an important religious and political figure in the Western United States.
a leader in the Latter Day Saints movement and founder of Salt Lake City. He was also the first governor of Utah Territory.
The slogan used in the 1844 presidential campaign referred to the latitude 54 degrees 40' N, the northern limit of the disputed Oregon Territory. The border dispute was settled peacefully with both side agreeing to the 49 parallel.
One American's Story
Frontier Lures Settlers
Settlers and Native Americans
Trails West
Amelia Stewart Knight
kept a journal of her family's five-month journey to Oregon.
The West drew increasing numbers of American Settlers during the mid-19th century despite the hardships of the journey and the difficult living conditions at he journey's end.
Thomas Jefferson had dreamed that the United States would become an "empire of liberty" by expanding across the continent
In the 1840s, Americans began to believe that their movement westward and southward was was destined and ordained by God.
The phrase used was manifest destiny...
The abundance of land in the West was the greatest attraction. Whether for farming or speculation, land ownership was an important step toward prosperity.
As the number of western settlers climbed, merchants and manufacturers followed, seeking new markets for their goods.
Many Americans endured the rigors of the westward trek because of personal economic problems in the East. Many thought that they would be better off attempting a fresh start in the West.
As American settlers moved west in rapidly growing numbers, they inevitably had an impact on Native American communities.
most tried to maintain their cultural traditions
some tried to assimilate into white culture
others fought to keep whites away from their homes
The Black Hawk War
In the early 1830s, white settlers in western Illinois and eastern Iowa placed great pressure on the Native American people there to move west of the Mississippi River.
notice the cool earrings and crazy hairdo?
A representative of one tribe told Chief Black Hawk of the Sauk tribe about a prophet who had a vision of a Big Black Bird Hawk that was to lead the nations and win back old homes of the people.
Chief Black Hawk
Chief of the Sauk
Chief Black Hawk thought he was to be the Big Black Bird Hawk of whom the prophet had spoken
Chief Black Hawk lead a rebellion in the Illinois and Wisconsin territories
The Sauk and Fox tribes were defeated by the militia and forcibly moved west of the Mississippi
This engraving portrays the defeat of the Sauk under Black Hawk by US forces led by General Henry Atkinson in 1832
Relations on the Middle Ground
Middle ground was a place that neither the Native Americans nor the settlers dominated.
As long as settlers needed Native Americans as trading partners and guides in unfamiliar territory, relations between them could be beneficial: even pleasant.
As settlers moved west, the middle ground moved westward with them.
By the 1840s, the middle ground was well west of the Mississippi, because the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and other treaties had pushed Native Americans of their lands to make room for the settlers.
Fort Laramie Treaty
Small numbers of displaced Native Americans occasionally attacked the settlers moving west.
One of the busiest and well-know avenues of trade was the Santa Fay Trail which ran 708 miles.
The Oregon Trail took months to cross but the rewards were great.
The government responded by calling a conference with the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, Crow, and other tribes. The Native Americans promised not to attack whites in return for land and annual payments.
Settlers continued to flow westward, trampling hunting grounds, slaughtering buffalo and elk, while the US Government repeatedly violated its side of the treaty. Subsequent treaties demanded that Native Americans abandon their lands and move to reservations.
Mormon Migration
One group who migrated along the Oregon Trail wanted to escape persecution.
Plagued by persecution and seeking to convert Native Americans, Smith and a growing band of followers decided to move west. In Illinois, Smith had angered the public by his claim of being a prophet and allowing male members to have more than one wife. Smith and his brother were murdered.
Resolving Territorial Dispute
For years, rival nations had claimed the rich Western lands. But by the early 19th century, all but Great Britain had abandon their claims.
The Oregon Territory was one of many territorial disputes between the US and Britain.
To avoid war, US and Britain agreed to split the disputed territories in half.
In 1844, Democrat James K. Polk's presidential platform called for annexation of the entire Oregon Territory.
The newspapers adopted the slogan...
Unfortunately, establishing the boundary in the Southwest with Mexico would not be so easy.
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