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Transcript of Fallacies
Support conclusions because of imprecise use of language
Offering considerations that don't effect a conclusion's truth.
Suppose you were an idiot. And suppose you were a member of congress. But then I repeat myself.
Fallacies of Relevance
Fallacies of Ambiguity
- Personal Attack
- other people agree, so it must be true
- information that is irrelavent to the matter at hand like appeals to tradition, authority, force, popularity, etc.
- Fallacy of distraction; It leads the reader astray by bring up a different issue as bait to capture the reader's interest and distracting him from the real issue.
- the intentional use of a word that has more than one interpretation to mislead the reader.
Ex. "I am adjusting some figures."
Straw Man Fallacy
- Misrepresents a position in order to make it appear weaker than it really is and refutes the misrepresentation of this position.
Vol XCIII, No. 311
What is a fallacy?
These begin with an assumption, so they fail to establish their claim.
Fallacies of Presumption
A fallacy is, basically, an error in reasoning. Some of the most common ones will be discussed today.
Fallacies are a big issue in argument because they provide distractions from the truth.
Begging the Question
- the argument assumes exactly what it attempts to prove. (The Bible is never wrong. Whatever the Bible says is true. So, the Bible is never wrong.)
(Either-or Reasoning)- Presents an issue in only two ways. For example, "Either vote for the school bond or destroy the lives of many American children."
- someone jumps to a broad conclusion based on too little evidence (like stereotyping.)
Post hoc fallacy
- incorrectly attributing a cause and effect relationship. Ex. After Brock became a vegetarian, he lost his muscle tone.
- a false appeal to fear suggesting tat a single event will lead to a series of catastrophic events
Find at least three examples of fallacies on your electronic device or in the provided magazines. Be ready to present them to the class and explain the fallacy. (More fallacies are listed on p. 545 of your books.)