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The Great Depression
Transcript of The Great Depression
Dust Bowl Presidential Plans A Second Chance Technology People's Lives in Ruins Before it even began... Stock Market Crashes! Hoover Becomes President The Stock Market Crashes... Stock prices fall, people sell in desperation.
People lose savings and are left with debt
Lost as much as lost in WWI People started living in "Shantytowns" because they were homeless and jobless
Soup kitchens and bread lines became and popular source of food for city dwellers
People in rural areas could grow their own food, all though many farms were foreclosed or effecting by the devastating Dust Bowl in the mid western states
Farmers left their land and migrated towards California and the Pacific for a better life On “Black Tuesday,” October 29, 1929, the market lost $14 billion, making the loss for that week an astounding $30 billion. This was ten times more than the annual federal budget and far more than the U.S. had spent in WWI.e Thirty billion dollars would be equivalent to $377,587,032,770.41 today.
A new look in women’s fashion emerged in the 1930s. In response to the economic crisis, designers created more affordable fashions with longer hemlines, slim waistlines, lower heels, and less makeup. Accessories became more important as they created the impression of a “new” look without having to buy a new dress.
The board game Monopoly, which first became available in 1935, became immensely popular perhaps because players could become rich—at least in their imagination.f
The “Three Little Pigs“—released May 27, 1933, and produced by Walt Disney—was seen as symbolic of the Great Depression, with the wolf representing the Depression and the three little pigs representing average citizens who eventually succeeded by working together. Turpentine, which the third little big dumps into the pot as the wolf is wiggling his way down the chimney, was defined "As an organic solvent, its vapor can irritate the skin and eyes, damage the lungs and respiratory system, as well as the central nervous system when inhaled, and cause renal failure when ingested, among other things. Being combustible, it also poses a fire hazard. Due to the fact that turpentine can cause spasms of the airways particularly in people with asthma and Whooping cough, it can contribute to a worsening of breathing issues in persons with these diseases if inhaled."
Nazism was on the rise in Germany. Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party came into power in 1933. Hitler pulled out the League of Nations and so did Italy and Japan.
The German hydrogen-inflated airship dubbed the Hindenburg exploded in 1937. Zeppelins fell out of popularity due to dangers.
WWII started in 1939 after much fighting between and withing various countries.
Gandhi's peaceful resistance movement in India received media attention.
Mao Zedong formed the Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931. Technicolor "All-color All talking" movies starting to be released in early 1930's
radar was invented in 1938
scotch tape - 1933
1936 - BBC started broadcasting on TV.
Nuclear Fission - 1939
Volkswagen Beetle - late 1930's
Accidentally developed, the chocolate chip cookie became popular in 1930.
... The Dust Bowl began in the early 1930's and lasted until 1939. Grains were selling well, which resulted in farmers overworking their land to make more money. The spring winds, loose soil, and drought together combined to result in what is currently known as the Dust Bowl. After the stock market crashed, Hoover tried to reassure everyone, but nothing he did made a difference until Boulder Dam was built, which started growing a small part of the economy again. He was still greatly criticized by the public until he started to come up with new ideas. By: Lee, Fiona, and Marin Winds swept soil and dust into the air, resulting in sand dunes and 'Black Blizzards'; dust clouds that could be five miles wide and thirty feet high. Houses were covered, and dust seeped through every crevice. 60% of the affected population moved elsewhere to escape the drought. Black Blizzards Sweep The Plains The federal Soil Conservation Service was put into action and sent to teach farmers how to rehabilitate their land. Farmers restored grass and planted trees over much of their lands to anchor soil, and were advised against year - round farming. Farmers used around half of their total cultivated land, alternating fields to allow for moisture to be stored for crops. In 1941, the Dust Bowl was over. Farmers became greedy in the 40's, and in the 50's another Dust Bowl was on its way, prompting Congressional action. The Great Plains program restored grasslands, and irrigation methods were developed. Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Lange-MigrantMother02.jpg Source: http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/images/dustbowlmap.gif Source: http://texascccparks.org/assets/images/571x/gen-dust-bowl-kansas-3719.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1929_wall_street_crash_graph.svg People produced more than they could sell
Mining and Railroad businesses were losing customers to new technologies
People lived on credit and ended up owing money
The rich got richer while the poor got poorer
People wanted to believe that America was doing fine http://www.glogster.com/natej72/farmers-during-great-depression/g-6namffgjpevql0jel9g9327?old_view=True Everything starts to look great in the economy, so people buy stock with borrowed money
Government fails to regulate stock market
Gap between rich and poor makes economy unstable http://schrier.wordpress.com/2011/01/12/
a-chicken-in-every-pot/ The Election of 1928 Republican Herbert Hoover and Democrat Alfred Smith were running Hoover was trusted by Americans as someone who knew business and would help the country. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1854569,00.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/72264/View-of-the-New-York-Stock-Exchange-on-an-active Financial Collapse Banks had lost money, no one could withdraw
No money coming in leads to bankruptcy
Lucky people fared well Not Only U.S. War debts remain
Europe loses money because of us Hawley-Smoot Tariff Protected American businesses
No other countries got our money
No countries could buy from U.S. http://www.rarenewspapers.com/view/568162 Causes of the Crash No one is buying from U.S.
Unequal distribution of income
Producing more than selling
Government let people get lots of loans to buy stock
When the stock was lost, everyone was in debt Source - http://cache2.artprintimages.com/LRG/37/3728/S2RAF00Z.jpg In his efforts to relieve the suffering of the depression, he signed the Federal Home Loan Bank Act, lowering mortgage rates and allowing farmers to refinance without going bankrupt. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation authorized $2 billion in emergency funds to large businesses, believing that money would just trickle down but it was too little, too late Dust Storms The dust storms that plagued the plains constantly were charged with static electricity. There was so much of it that it could shut down car motors, causing many drivers to drag chains behind their cars to ground them in an attempt to prevent it. Even people shaking hands could get shocked. One dust storm was so bad that it reached the East Coast, coating the Statue of Liberty in New York City and the U.S. Capitol building in Washington D.C. in dust, as well as the rest of the East Coast. Source - http://lh6.ggpht.com/-sATupxMy_3I/S-y-AeVMUWI/AAAAAAAAA3A/xArET9epLbQ/1935-3-RG%252520114G-c-6001a-Dust%252520Bowl%252520reaches%252520Washington%25252C%252520D.C..jpg Source - http://8fclasswiki.pbworks.com/f/1271124410/political%20cartoon%20003.jpg For many who lost their homes, tent or shack cities called "Hoovervilles" became their homes. Their newspaper sheets were "Hoover blankets", and empty inside-out pockets were known as "Hoover flags". Source -http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/content/2012/1119-dustbowl/14328601-1-eng-US/1119-dustbowl_full_600.jpg THE END and now for a little fun.. JEOPARDY BINGO Blame it on Hoover Source - http://hoovervillehistory.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/hooverville.jpg What caused the Dust Bowl to happened? (A) Drought
(B) Over worked land
(C) Loose topsoil and strong winds Answer: Trick question! They were all reasons, so which ever letter you picked (A,B,C), you can mark that one on your bingo board! :) What were Black Blizzards? (A)Severe dust storms
(B) Snow storms
(C) Popular drinks during that time Answer: (A) Severe dust storms (A)Encouragement for them to work
(B) Resentment because people felt that if women were working then they were taking jobs away from men
(C) It was okay but it was preferred if women only worked in the house Answer: (B) Resentment because people felt that if women were working then they were taking jobs away from men What was the original name of Hoover Dam? (A)It was originally called Hoover Dam
(B) Canyon Dam
(C) Boulder Dam Answer: (C) Boulder Dam How long did the Dust Bowl last? (A)15-20 years
(B) 100 years
(C) 6-10 years Answer: (C) 6-10 years What business went into debt because of new forms of transportation? (A) Automobiles
(C) Airplanes Answer: (B) Railroads When the government failed to regulate the stock market, what problems did rapid buyers encounter? (A)They got a lot of money!
(B) The government wouldn't let anyone buy stock
(C) People couldn't pay their loans Answer: (C) People couldn't pay their loans What new politician gave people hope for America’s future? (A)Warren Harding
(B) J. Edgar Hoover
(C) Herbert Hoover Answer: (C) Herbert Hoover When the stock market crashed, what did people try to do? (A)Buy cheap stock
(B) Sell stock quickly
(C) Take out loans Answer: (B) Sell stock quickly The Hawley Smoot Tariff on foreign goods protected American businesses, but how did it make things worse? (A)It made it easy for foreigners to buy all our products, leaving us with nothing
(B) Stopped imports, making it impossible for other countries to get our money and buy our products
(C) Made other countries go farther into debt because they could not sell anything anywhere.
Answer: (B) Stopped imports, making it impossible for other countries to get our money and buy our products Which of the following is NOT a cause of the Great Depression? (A)Banks had all the money from loans and there was nothing stimulating the economy
(B) The availability of easy credit
(C) People produced too much Answer: (A) Banks had all the money from loans and there was nothing stimulating the economy
THE DUST BOWL What was wrong with a lot of children's health during this time? (A)Malnutrition
(C) Polio Answer: (A) Malnutrition Who did the "Bonus Army" mainly consist of? (A)WWI Veterans and their families
(C) Children Answer: (A) WWI Veterans and their families What was the common reaction to woman in the work force during the Great Depression? What philosophy of Hoover's turned out to be disastrous during the depression? (A)Cutting off ties from other countries will save our economy
(B) The economy will eventually fix itself
(C) The government should find ways to create jobs for Americans Answer: (B) The economy will eventually fix itself The Hoover Dam was a clever plan because... (A)It kept out foreigners so they could not take American's jobs
(B) The jobs it created ended the depression
(C) It paid for its own construction with the electricity it made Answer: (C) It paid for its own construction with the electricity it made http://blsciblogs.baruch.cuny.edu/his1005spring2011/files/2011/03/Soup3.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Dust_Bowl_-_Dallas,_South_Dakota_1936.jpg "The harsh reality of life during the Great Depression is vividly recalled by Travis (12 yrs) who found his father behind their Massachusetts house, crying and heartbroken. “My dad was the strongest man I knew, but the Depression brought him to his knees.” While starving children in the Appalachians chewed on their hands, nearly drawing blood, nursery school children in Philadelphia played an “eviction game.” Toy furniture would be piled up in one corner of the room, then picked up and moved to another corner. “We ain’t got no money for rent, so we move. Then we get the sheriff on us, so we move again.” http://www.allabouthistory.org/life-during-the-great-depression.htm Culture of the 1930's http://facts.randomhistory.com/2009/04/12_great-depression.html Political Happenings Architecture Empire State Building - 1931
Golden Gate Bridge - 1937 Film Gone With The Wind, The Wizard of Oz, Cleopatra, Dracula, Frankenstein, Laurel and Hardy.... Music Swing and the Blues became even more popular. ART Art Deco was at its height in U.S. and Europe.
Notable literature written... - John Steinbeck Grapes of Wrath Color Photography was becoming more developed PEOPLE So many more important people! ... JUDY GARLAND CLARK GABLE WALT DISNEY SHIRLEY TEMPLE JESSE OWENS JOE DIMAGGIO BARNEY ROSS GEORGE GERSHWIN BILL "BOJANGLES" ROBINSON AMELIA EARHART