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Transcript of THESIS PPT
THE REFORM ERA
BY: MARIA A. S. RAHAJENG
Istana Kecantikan (1988)
Communication: a systematic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meaning (Wood 2011, 12).
Representation: the production of meaning through language. It connects meaning and language to culture (Hall 2009, 16).
Culture: a set of shared and enduring meaning, values, and beliefs that characterize national, ethnic, or other groups behavior (Mulholland, 1991).
DENOTATION, CONNOTATION, MYTH ANALYSIS
How are the representations of homosexuals in film before the Reform Era?
Semiotics: A science that studies the life of signs within society (Saussure 1915, 16). Including language, art, music, dance, any system related with communication.
Roland Barthes Semiotic Theory: Emphasizes how signs constitute culture and ideologies in particular ways (Lockwood 2001).
UNIT ANALYSIS & MEASURES
How are the representations of homosexuals in film after the Reform Era?
Are there any differences in the representations of homosexuals in film before and after the Reform Era?
A person's worldview and understanding of the world around them come from many influential agents including family, peers, media etc.
The way representations are constructed is as important as the ideas and meanings they project (Swanson 1991, p 123)
Mid 1990s onwards there was small presence of gay and lesbian voices in the general media
Akulah Vivien (1977)
Istana Kecantikan (1988)
Gadis Metropolis 2 (1995)
Coklat Stroberi (2007)
Arisan 2 (2011)
Sanubari Jakarta (2012)
Gained freedom of the press
Filmmakers liable to address previously banned topics such as religion, race, love, and sexual minorities (Cieko 2006).
Gay homosexual: a male who is sexually attracted to other males and identify himself as being gay.
The first Indonesian film to specifically tackle the gay theme (Murtagh 2006, 211).
Consisted of groundbreaking content: displayed the first ever gay kiss in Indonesian cinema.
represents what is physically seen from the object/subjects present, which consists of a signifier and signified.
: involves cultural knowledge associated with the underlying content of that specific scene.
: combination between cultural knowledge and theological background within the specific time the scene was taken.
Major and minor characters that posed significant to the storyline.
Conflict: a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, value, or goals (Pia & Diez 2007, 2). Central issues within a story.
Man vs. Self
Man vs. Man
Man vs. Nature
Man vs. Society
Man vs. Fate
(bodily contact, physical orientation, appearance, facial expression, gaze, gestures, and posture)
(fashion and clothing)
+ Social Roles
: The part people play as members of a social group (McLeod 2008).
REPRESENTATION OF HOMOSEXUALS BEFORE AND AFTER THE REFORM ERA THROUGH CONFLICTS FOUND
REPRESENTATION: REFLECTION & CONSTRUCTION
SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES OF HOMOSEXUAL REPRESENTATIONS BEFORE & AFTER THE REFORM ERA
Similar socio economic background
Homosexuality is biological
Dealt with similar pressures from family and society to marry & bear children to carry the family line
Represented as victims of homosexuality
Very taboo to talk about your true self of being gay (Sartono 2013).
Negative connotations of homosexuality seen as ideology of dominant class.
Factors such as film censorship, freedom of the press and not liable to address specific issues.
Freedom of the press: Government became more open with films consisting of LGBT themes that have passed the censorship board (Hary 2013).
Filmmakers more liable to express and address topics previously banned such as race, love, sexual minorities (Cieko 2006).
Emergence of generation filmmakers from middle-upper class, familiar with contemporary culture & social discourse (Maimunah 2011, 114).
Society more acceptable towards gays as long as it does not interfere and disturb them (Sartono 2013).
The film says as much about Indonesian perceptions of the gay world as it does about the reality of life as a gay man in Jakarta (Murtagh 2006, 211).
Director's (Sihombing) in making the film out of sympathy with gay life: "I wanted to reveal it (gay life)." (Murtagh 2011, 399)
An illustration of how gay men can be accepted in the normal world if his coming out is handled in a gradual and non-confrontational way rather than a realistic representation of Indonesian gay culture (Murtagh 2011).
Attacks and protests still happening towards homosexuality during that time.
Major themes of homosexual nonacceptance, hypocrisy, and inevitable loneliness. (Negative representations)
Major themes of friendship, being yourself, overall homosexual acceptance in society. (Positive representations)
Istana Kecantikan had negative while Arisan! had positive representations. Moreover, Istana Kecantikan is a reflection of how society viewed homosexuality, while Arisan! was a construction of homosexuality.
Focus on other forms of research analysis other than Semiotics
Increase the amount of films analyzed
Interview the directors from both films to obtain a more thorough analysis and result
Interview more homosexual interviewees.