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Factors Affecting Population Change

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Katya Kachurina

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Factors Affecting Population Change

Factors Affecting Population Change - an interaction between (usually) different species, in which a predator kills and consumes prey Predation - the struggle between two or more organisms of the same or different species for limiting resources such as food, light, space, mates, etc. Competition Population -Limiting Factors Density -Dependent Factors - factors that influence the growth of a population depending on its density. These could be either biotic or abiotic. Density -Independent Factors The spread of disease would be more likely in a highly populated area rather than in a less populated one, with more individuals getting affected by it. - factors that influence the growth of a population regardless of population density. They limit population growth through human intervention or extreme weather changes in environmental conditions. Due to human intervention loons often have to give up their nesting places, thus they are left without a proper shelter. Ecological Niches Realized Niche
"The Reality" Fundamental Niche
"The Dream" - what an organism is actually able to achieve, since ideal conditions don't exist in nature - the resources and the environmental conditions an organism can use and occupy, under ideal conditions - An organism's biological characteristics, including the use of and interaction with abiotic and biotic resources in its environment. Urban striped skunk Intraspecific Competition - competition between members of the same species. They can compete for food, water, space, mates and nesting sites. Bighorn rams competing for a female Interspecific Competition - competition between individuals of different species for a limited resource. They compete for the same resources as the ones mentioned in "Intraspecific Competition" - water, food, mates, space, etc. Interference Competition This form of competition is direct and hence involves physical fighting Exploitative Competition - is the indirect form of competition; it is the consumption/use of shared resources by members of different species. Interspecific and Intraspecific Competition Deer competing for a mating partner Golden eagles fighting Limiting Factors - a limiting factor is any essential resource that is limited in supply. Individuals rely on these resources for survival. These include: water, shelter, food, space. Allee Effect - a density-dependent phenomenon that occurs when the population density of species is too low, and individuals can't reproduce fast enough to support their own kind. Resource Partitioning - a mechanism used by organisms in order to reduce exploitative competition. Character displacement is the process by which traits of species evolve to reduce competition, so the organisms could coexist. The species adapt to the competitive environment in such a way that both get what they require to survive. This may include feeding at different times and in different locations. - a sinusoidal graph which represents the predator- prey interactions. The population density of one species closely relates to the density of the other:
When the growth rate of the predator increases, the population size of another species (the prey), declines.
This change in population of the prey affects the predators and their population declines, as there isn't enough food
This causes the population of the prey to increase
Furthermore, the population of the predators increases once again, and the cycle repeats. Predator-Prey Population Cycles Defense Mechanisms Predator- prey interactions helped plant and animal species evolve their own defense mechanisms through repeated encounters with predators .
Animals can occupy passive defense mechanisms (like hiding) or active defenses (like fleeing)
These include alarm calls, camouflage, mimicry (Batesian and Mullerian) Symbiosis - a relationship in which individuals of two different species live in a close physical contact Mutualism - a relationship in which both species are benefited and Goby fish and shrimp Commensalism - a relationship in which one organism is benefited, and the other is neither benefited nor harmed. and Squirrel and tree Parasitism - a relationship in which one organism is benefited and the other one is harmed and The Spotted Rose Snapper Fish and Cymothoa Exigua parasite Populations are always changing, and there are many factors that account for that.
All living organisms participate in interactions;all species are closely related to one another.That's how nature keeps its balance. Thank You! Application of Symbiotic Relationships chameleon octopus camouflaging
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