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Radioactivity

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by

Judy Liu

on 28 October 2014

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Transcript of Radioactivity

First woman to win a Nobel Prize
The first and only person ever to win 2 Nobel Prizes
Marie Curie
Polish and French
Physicist and Chemist
Otto Hahn
German Nuclear Chemist
Lise Meitner
Austrian Nuclear Physicist
Conclusions
Experimental
Design and Data Collection
By Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner
When a neutron and an atom collide the atom will split = Nuclear Fission
Roots to Fruit
RADIOACTIVITY
Marie Curie - Facts. (n.d.). Marie Curie - Facts. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1903/marie-curie-facts.html
Historical Background
Born in Warsaw, Poland
Excelled in her academic studies
Her father was a physics, chemistry, math tutor which stimulated her interest in science
Went to Sorbonne, Paris
Started doing her work in the late 1890's into the early 1900's
(November 7, 1867 - July 4, 1934)
Otto Hahn. (n.d.). Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://www.atomicheritage.org/profile/otto-hahn
Historical Background
Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Studied chemistry at the University of Marburg but payed more attention to art and philosophy
Returned to the university as a chemistry lecture assistant after a year of military service
Went to London in 1904 and worked at University College with Sir William Ramsay, who was interested in radioactivity
Worked from 1907 to 1968
(March 8, 1879 - July 28, 1968)
Lise Meitner. (n.d.). Mediahex . Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http://www.mediahex.com/Lise_Meitner
Historical Background
Born in Vienna, Austria
Her father is a Jewish lawyer
Went to school until she was 13 and was then privately tutored because of her talent for math
In 1901 she entered the University of Vienna and studied under the famous Ludwig Boltzmann
4 years later she earned her Ph.D. in physics
Worked from 1907 to 1968
(November 7, 1878 - October 27, 1968)
By: Judy Liu, Sandhya Ramachandran, and Meredith Duffield
Marie Curie
Chemical Analysis
Marie Curie
Used to identify the most radioactive fractions
1897
Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner's Experiment
Otto observed a radioactive product of uranium. The product called barium is much lighter than uranium which meant that the uranium had split into 2 lighter atoms
Detailed Experiment cont.
Irradiation room, a uranium sample was irradiated by a neutron source
As the neutrons bombarded the uranium sample, nuclear fission occurred.
To measure radioactivity, the measuring room was equipped with home-made Geiger-Müller radioactivity counters to determine the decay.
Radiation measurements
Curie electrometer
Used to isolate unknown substances
Used to trace the amount of the unknown radioactive substance
Conclusions
Experimental Design Continued
Discovered two fractions
by Marie Curie
Mostly barium = radium
Mostly bismuth = polonium
Radioactivity did not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecules
It is directly related to the interior part of the atoms itself
Achievements
Marie Curie
Achievements
2
Nobel Prizes: one in physics (1903), the other in chemistry (1911)
First woman to win a Nobel Prize
First and only person to win the Nobel Prize twice in two different sciences
Curie Family Legacy
She is 1 in 4 people who have ever won 2 Nobel Prizes
First female professor at the University of Paris
Otto Hahn
Conclusions and Contributions
Hahn did not mention Meitner in the chemical evidence for fission so she was not given the Nobel Prize
Achievements
Discovered fission of uranium and thorium
Otto Hahn
Won the Nobel Prize in chemistry (1944)
Discovered Uranium Z
Scientific member and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for chemistry
Works Cited
Helmenstine, A. (n.d.). What is Radioactivity? What is Radiation? Retrieved September 24, 2014.
The Hahn-Meitner team was nominated 10
Otto and Meitner named the process of the the two atoms splitting "nuclear fission".
Fission- Neutrons collide with an atom which causes that atom to split
The pros and cons of nuclear power plants. (n.d.). Orble. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://www.sciencegadget.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-nuclear-power-plants/
Lise Meitner
One of the first to discover nuclear fission
Gave the possibility of a nuclear reactor

Discoveries lead to the atomic bomb

Discovered new isotopes and protactnium (element 91)
Given her own section in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Element 109 was named in her honor- meitnerium
years in a row for the Nobel Prize
Chemistry
Full transcript