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Paulina Cedillo

on 14 March 2014

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Rome (300 B.C.-A.D. 500)
Rise of Rome
-Surrounded by Etruscan & Greek powers
-Rome founded in approximately 753 BC but republic founded 508 BC
-Learned to value hard work due to poor soil

-275BC Romans defeat all Italian groups, Gauls, and Etruscans
-Africans and Asians recognize Rome as a world power
Roman Leaders and Politics
Roman Religion
-Religion very important to Rome
-King of Scared Rites: Leader of religious ceremonies
-Corresponding Gods with Greeks
-Mentality of Romans different from Greek because more military minded and obsessed with using the correct rituals (instauratio)

The Punic Wars &Roman Civil Wars
Roman Literature
-Often tried to find the causes of major events in a man’s life; wanted to make a history for themselves (this is why they associate themselves with Troy)
-incorporated their thoughts and philosophies in their poetry
reflect the military and political conditions and controversies of the late republic rather than accurately portraying the events of early Rome

-Roman society was governed by a strong military ethos.
-Republic began about 500 BC.
(gov't with elected officials who have power. Also called representative democracy)
-The Romans organized their citizenry in a way that permitted expansion.
- Plebeians(common people had rights)
-Rome's constitution: elements of monarchy (magistrates), aristocracy (Senate), and democracy (popular assemblies)
-Justinian's code- helped to organize hundreds of years of Roman Laws

Augustus Caesar or Octavian was adopted son of Julius Caesar. He becomes the first roman emperor after the assassination of Julius Caesar.
-early literature~ very similar to greeks, epics, dramas, tragedy, comedy(this leads to influencing centuries of western drama)
-Moves on to mostly epics and novels (about wars and myths)
-Romans often took greek form for poetry but wrote from very distinctive Roman point of view
-At end of Empire, people often wrote personal lyric instead of patriotic epics they called “serious” works
-Major powers: Roman Republic and Carthaginian Empire
-Carthage and Rome control the Mediterranean and are at a constant battle for land
-Phoenician queen, Dido, was founder of Carthage
-Carthage becomes Naval Power
-Punic come from the Roman word Phoenicians

First Punic War (264-241 B.C.)
-Powers fight to control Sicily
-Roman victory:
-Carthage is forced to give up Sicily and other lands
-Carthage must also pay a tribute for there loss
Victory brought Rome brought Rome an increase in Literature and Art

Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.)
-Hannibal Barca: Carthage military leader, led forces over Alps to attack Rome
-Cross Alps while sacrificing many elephants and men
-Scipio defeated Hannibal's and his army at Zama

Victory brought Rome improvements in foreign policy
Third Punic War (149-146 B.C.)
-Rome annexed Carthage as a province
-Rome enslaved the Phoenician people after a Carthaginian revolt
-No competition in wine and export trade
"Hannibal's Revenge"
Punic Wars was a time of great expansion for Rome
Roman Civil Wars
-Roman leaders struggled for control over ALL of the Roman Republic
-War spanned for over 100 yrs.
-Changes in power, authority, and hierarchy; political subversion
-Society divided: conservative, plantation-owning senatorial aristocracy, underclass(they rioted; groups of slaves revolted)

Birth of the Roman Empire

-Augustus' goal is to restore the old republic; reforming legal and religious aspects

-Empire flourished with literature and architecture

-150 C.E. Rome at height of power controlling all of Western Europe and the Mediterranean

-Augustus ruled for 40 years and his successors for the following 30 year
The Dismemberment of the Roman Empire
-Many unsuitable rulers in short amount of time
-Size makes it vulnerable to frontiers
-Local tribes are attracted to Rome’s wealth and resources
-Roman Empire divides into western and eastern empires
-E Empire:intellectual life, Greek language, survives longer
-W. Empire: fell militarily/culturally to Germanic invaders

Roman Advances
1. Julian Calendar (416 B.C.)
2. Aqueducts (312 B.C.)
3. Roman Arches
4. Roads and Highway (200 C.E)
5. Concrete (87 B.C.)
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