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The Roots of Revolution
Transcript of The Roots of Revolution
beginning following Treaty of Utrecht in 1713
Sugar Act 1764
Quartering Act 1765
Townshend Acts 1767
The Townshend Acts were a series of four acts that were passed by the British Parliament in an attempt to assert authority. The first act (the suspending act) stopped the New York assembly from conducting business until they complied with the Quartering Act.The second act (the Townshend duties) imposed on duties that were directly correlated with the British gaining profit. The third act established arbitrary machinery of customs in the American Colonies. And last, but not least, the fourth act allowed for tea to be exported to the colonies, free of British taxes.
Writs of Assistance 1767
The Writs of Assistance were search warrants issued by the King Of England to help in enforcing trade and navigation laws. They allowed judicial officers to search anoyne and everyone's homes for smuggled goods.
The Roots of the Revolution
Proclamation of 1763
Committees of Correspondence 1764
Stamp Act 1765
Virginia Resolves 1765
Boston Massacre 1770
Boston Tea Party 1773
Intolerable Acts 1774
First Continental Congress 1774
The Association 1774
Lexington and Concord 1775
Second Continental Congress 1775
T. Paine’s Common Sense published 1776
Declaration of Independence 1776
Salutary Neglect was an unofficial policy that was meant to keep colonists obedient to Britain. The policy was unwritten and was not named until March 22, 1775. Salutary neglect allowed American colonists to trade with non-British entities and earn money, and then spend their money on British-made things. The unintended effect of this policy, was that America was operating independently both economically and politically.
The Proclamation of 1763 began after the ending of the French and Indian War. It was a declaration made by King George III and it stated that all lands west of the Appalachian Divide off-limits to colonial settlers. Citizens were not permitted to purchase land because all official relations were handled by the British Empire. This supposedly protected colonists from Indian attacks.
The Sugar Act levied heavy taxes on sugar from the West Indies which greatly benefited the British Empire because they were in control of the trade.It an economic effect on the colonists as sugar was highly taxed and it brought up the constitutional issue of no taxation without representation.
Currency Act of 1764
There were great shortages of silver and gold mines in the colonies which made the manufacturing of currency difficult. Colonies had their own currency, but it soon confused everyone as their was no common regulation or value standard to follow. When Parliament passed the Currency Act, they effectively assumed control of the colonial currency system. The act extinguished the dilemma of any new bills and the reissue of existing currency.
The committees of Correspondence were used as a communication system between all of the colonies before the Revolutionary War. Boston formed the earliest committee to encourage opposition when the British Parliament enforced the Currency Act.
The Stamp Act was created and enforced by the British Parliament and it demanded that a tax be placed on legal and commercial documents and newspapers. It was repealed in 1766 and it encouraged the Revolutionary War.
The Virginia Resolves were a series of resolutions the Virginia House of Burgesses made in response to the Stamp Act. There were five resolves passed on May 30, 1765.
The Stamp Act Congress was an intercolonial meeting designed to plan resistance to new tax. Representatives from colonies met on October 7, 1765 in New York City to discuss the issues. The delegates approved a 14-point Declaration of Rights and Grievances which restated some of the resolves declared by the Virginia House of Burgesses.
The quartering act was another policy declared by the British that stated that colonial citizens were required to provide living and housing accommodations to british soldiers, without hesitation, when needed.
The Boston Massacre began as a mocking of British soldiers done by American colonists. The British soldiers were ordered not to fire and shoot at the colonists, but with all the commotion (including the snowballs being thrown by colonists), soldiers could have easily misunderstood and done the exact opposite of what was ordered. After the first shot, British soldiers began firing which led to the deaths of Crispus Attucks, Patrick Carr, Samuel Gray, Samuel Maverick, and James Caldwell. A total of three were injured. British soldiers were put on trial and two were found guilty. As their punishment, they had an "M", for murder, branded on their thumbs.
The Boston Tea Party was organized by the sons of liberty, who were disguised as Indians when their plan was carried out. One of the causes was the ordeal of " no taxation without representation". It took place on December 16, 1773. The event was that the Sons of Liberty, in protest to the Tea Act, would go into the Boston Harbor, and raid ships containing British Tea, and then to dump all 340 chests of Britsh Tea into the Boston Harbor. As a result, the British shut down Boston Harbor until all of the tea was paid for.
The Intolerable Acts were a series of acts passed by British Parlaiment after the Boston Tea Party. The first act was the Boston Port Act which basically discontiued the use of the Boston Harbor until all of the tea destroyed during the Boston Tea Party was paid for by patriots. The second act was called the Massachusetts Government Act. This act "improved" the government in the Massachusetts Bay colony. The third act was the Administration of Justice Act. This act was created to supress riots and tumults in the Massachusetts Bay area. The last act was called the Quebec Act. Its purpose was for for making effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec in North America.
The first continental congress met in Philadelphia from September 5-October 26, 1774. Georgia was the only colony that did not send delegates to attend the meeting. The purpose was to join colonies together to show Great Britain that America was a combined, separate force. However, some colonies such as New York and Pennsylvania were only hoping to resolve the issues with England.
On April 18, 1775 British troops marched from Boston to Concord with intentions to seize an arms cache belonging to the patriots. Citizens, such as Paul Revere, warned the nearby city and 70 colonial militiamen were prepared and ready to defend their beliefs against 240 British Soldiers on the Lexington Green. After the British retreat at Lenxington, the British moved on to Concord, but were thwarted by patriot militiamen.
After the Revolutionary War had begun, the Second Continental Congress was started. Similar to the first continental congress, the second one consisted of delegates from all 13 colonies who met together in Philadelphia in 1775. Topics such as whether or not George Washington should be the supreme commander, or even if starting a continental army was a good idea.
Author Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet called "Common Sense", which provided colonists with reasons to consider independece from England. This pamphlet played a remarkable role in U.S. History as it was incredibly influential to colonial citizens.
The Declaration of Independence is one of the most important documents in American history. The final draft was published in 1776 and clearly stated 13 reasons why America wanted to separate from England. The document was signed on July fourth by 56 delegates to the continental congress. The first person to sign the Declaration of Independence was John Hancock and the oldest person to sign it was Benjamin Franklin at 70 years old.
The Continental Association was intended for implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain. The Association hoped that by hindering England's economy, they would pressure Britain to redress the grievances stated by the colonies.