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Transcript of Roman Empire:
Some were believed to be Indo- Europeans and spoke the language or Aryan.
Its imperative to note that the actual settlement of Italy cant be precisely said
The Greeks and Etruscan's are the exigent peoples generally & in this discourse. We may ask ourselves the question-- Why is this subject worthy of our attention? Is it because Rome was one of the greatest powers of the ancient world, and has also exercised a great influence upon nearly all modern nations? To understand the world in which we live to-day, we must study certain world-peoples, who may have lived many centuries ago, but have given to us much of our language, our literature, our religion, our art, our government and law. Which basically makes us what we are today. EARLY ROME CONTD. A small town on central Italy's Tiber River
8th century- a settlement of huts on the tops of Rome's hills
Early romans- Latin speaking = Indo-Europeans
Early Rome ( 753-509 B.C)according to roman historical tradition- under control of 7 kings; 2 were Etruscans
Under the influence of the Etruscans for close to 100 years
6th century still under the influence; started emerging as a city
Etruscans– exceptional buildings
Sacred way – first road bed of the chief street through Rome before 575 B.C ; development of temples, markets, shops, streets
509 B.C monarchy was overthrown (Larquis Tarquinius Superbus) ETRUSCAN TABLET ETRUSCANS Settled North of Rome in Etruria
Fortified towns with walls often in the strongest manner, and also linked together in confederations. Their prosperity was founded not only upon agriculture, but also upon commerce.
Advanced & well developed but different from other cultures in the region = question of their origin
Herodotus: peoples migrated from Asia Minor.
Dionysius: they are indigenous Italian people.
19th century Germans: They migrated from central Europe.
Current theory: They are descendants of earlier Villanovans; influenced by contacts with Easterners.
Villanovans- Iron Age people, (10th c. BCE), inhabited from Po River Valley to Latium. They cremated their dead and were a war-like people skilled in metallurgy. It is a narrow peninsula
APENNINE MOUNTAINS crosses from north to south and forms a ridge which divides the west from the east
Fairly large fertile plains ideal for farming
Productive farmland; support large population
The Po valley
The plain of Latium (location of Rome)
Campania to the south of Latium
Important rivers (Po &Tiber) seas (see map)
Rome had a favorable location from a geographical perspective
18 miles inland to Tiber river--- access to sea, far enough to be safe from pirates
Built on 7 hills, it was easily defended
The proper study of Roman history begins with the geography of Italy; because it was in Italy that the Roman people had their origin, and it was here that they began their great career. It was only when the Romans had conquered and organized Italy that they were able to conquer and govern the world. ITALY & ITS GEOGRAPHY. EARLY ROME CONTD. A new Rome emerged fusion of Etruscans & Roman element
Expanded over its 7 hills– servian wall was built 4th century
Adopted alphabets, the Etruscan clothing style- toga & cloak
Insignia of roman magistrates were from the Etruscans kings
Fasces and ax surrounded by a bundle of rods used as a symbol for power to rule
End of monarchy she committed suicide
Roman nobles drove the kings family away & established a republican form of government res publica or property of the people GREEKS Greek Colonization --- arrived in large numbers on the peninsula
Settled in southern Italy
Founded colonies– Cumae. Naples, Tarentum, et al.
Civilized people- permanent communities, coastal plains for agriculture & harbors to carry on trade = received the name Magna Graecia
Cultivated olives and vines
Alphabetic system of writing, sculpture, architecture & literature influenced Romans
Initial influence through the Etruscans
Conquest of southern Italy & Sicily brought them into direct contact with the Romans
Roman culture = extension of Greek culture ITALIAN PENINSULA MAP Emanation of Rome. ITALY & its GEOGRAPHY
EARLY ROME EARLY ROME Roman Legend– Rome was founded by the twin brothers- Romulus true?? Leopards, Banqueters, and Musicians, tomb of the leopards in Tarquinia, 480-470 BCE The Etruscans building one of their cities on the sea coast ETRUSCANS CONTD. After 650 B.C; expanded in Italy; became dominant in culture and economic aspect in some places
They moved into central Italy
Rome tradition & archaeological evidence--- they controlled Rome and Latium possibly
Moved south into Campania; founded a settlement at Capua and came into direct contact with the Greeks
6th century B.C = impact on roman history; Etruscan dynasty of the Tarquins ruled from 616 B.C- 509 B.C <?? Roman Tarquins connected with Tarchu known from inscriptions??>
400 B.C – power limited to Etruria
Invaded by Gaul's; conquers by roman
Already made an impact with transformation, urbanization to N&C. Italy
Etruscans famous creation? –Rome Nkechi Okonkwo
David Chukwuma Rome’s empire was built in three stages:
The conquest of Italy
The conflict with Carthage
The expansion into the western Mediterranean, and domination of the Hellenistic kingdoms in the eastern Mediterranean.
The Romans did not have a master plan for the creation of an empire.
The more they expanded, the more threats to their security appeared on the horizon, involving them in yet more conflicts.
Some historians have suggested, that at some point a group of Roman aristocratic leaders emerged who favored expansion both for the glory it offered and for the economic benefits it provided. Rome gradually recovered and raised yet another army.
In 204 B.C., Scipio Africanus led a Roman army from Sicily into North Africa and forced the Carthaginians to recall Hannibal from Italy.
At the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C., Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal and the Carthaginian forces, and the war was over.
Hannibal fled to Bithynia, near the Black Sea. Pursued by the Romans, Hannibal committed after saying, ‘‘Let us free Rome of her dread of one old man.’’
In 201 the Carthaginians Signed peace treaty promising not to go to war without Rome’s permission and agreed to pay an indemnity and Spain was became a Roman province. Unfortunately for the Carthaginians, they were finding it hard to find mercenaries to continue the fight.
After a long struggle in North Africa and Sicily with many casualties on both sides, a Roman fleet defeated the Carthaginian navy off Drepana, Sicily, in242 B.C.
Carthage called for peace, and gave up all rights to Sicily and had to pay an indemnity to Rome
The war ended in 241 B.C
Rome saw advantage the in the Carthaginians in ability to find mercenaries to seize control of the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
Carthage accepted the defeat this time but the war is still far from over.
This act so angered the Carthaginians that, according to one story, their leading general, Hamilcar Barca, made his nine-year-old son swear that he would hate Rome ever after. The son’s name was Hannibal After the Romans conquered the Italian peninsular they still felt threatened by another super power of that time Carthage.
Carthage was founded around 800 B.C by the Phoenicians.
The territory under the control of Carthage gave them control of the Mediterranean trade routs and as such became the center of commerce.
By the third century B.C. Carthage was in control of the coast of North Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, Corsica, and western Sicily.
Carthage also had a strong army which constituted mostly of mercenaries.
With so much control over the western Mediterranean trade routs, Carthage became the richest state in the region. During the Punic Wars, Rome had become acutely aware of the Hellenistic states of the eastern Mediterranean when the king of Macedonia made an alliance with Hannibal after the Roman defeat at Cannae
After the the destruction of Carthage Rome became involved in the world of Hellenistic politics as an advocate for the freedom of the Greek states.
This support of the Greeks brought the Romans into conflict with both Macedonia and the kingdom of the Seleucids.
Rome used its military victories and diplomatic negotiations rearranged the territorial boundaries of the Hellenistic kingdoms and achieved the freedom of the Greek states in 196 B.C.
Rome tried to be a power broker in the affairs of the Greeks for fifty years with out direct control of their lands when the effort failed, the Romans changed their policy.
In 148 B.C. Macedonia was made a Roman province of Rome and when some of the Greek states rose in revolt against Rome’s restrictive policies, Rome acted decisively, and Greece was placed under the control of the Roman governor of Macedonia.
Thirteen years later, in 133 B.C., the king of Pergamum gave up his kingdom to Rome, giving Rome its first province in Asia and Rome Rome master of the Mediterranean Sea. Conquest of the Mediterranean Sea But some Romans wanted even more. A number of prominent Romans advocated for the complete destruction of Carthage.
In (149 B.C.) When the Carthaginians technically broke their peace treaty with Rome by going to war against one of Rome’s North African allies who had been encroaching on Carthage’s home territory, the Romans declared war.
Scipio Aemilianus Africanus found him self leading the roman army to war with Carthage again.
This time, Carthage was no match for the Romans, who seized the opportunity to carry out the final destruction of Carthage
The territory of Carthage was made a Roman province called Africa. 3rd Punic war This time the Carthaginian strategy aimed at bringing the war home to the Romans and defeating them in their own backyard.
Hannibal marched across the Alps with an army of 30,000 to 40,000 men and 6,000 horses and elephants and advanced into northern Italy.
General Hanibal defeated the Romans at the Trebia River, he added thousands of Gauls to his army and proceeded into Lake Trasimene in Etruria where he defeated the Romans again.
The Romans elected Quintus Fabius Maximusas consul, who became known as the ‘‘Delayer’’ because of his tactics of following and delaying Hannibal’s army without risking a pitched battle. At Cannae, Hannibal’s forces devastated a Roman army, killing as many as 40,000 soldiers.
At that point, some of the southern Italian cities rebelled against Roman rule and went over to Hannibal. Between the wars, Carthage made an unexpected recovery under the leadership of the general who had been briefly successful in Sicily in the First PunicWar, Hamilcar Barca.
Hamilcar extended Carthage’s domains in Spain to compensate for the territory lost to Rome. A major goal in creating the Spanish empire was to get manpower for Carthage.
In 221 B.C., Hamilcar’s son Hannibal, now twenty-five, took over command of Carthaginian army.
Rome made an alliance with city of Saguntum which was located in the Carthaginian sphere and encouraged its inhabitants in anti-Carthaginian activities.
In 218 B.C. Hannibal attacked Saguntum, and the Romans declared war on Carthage for attacking its ally.
Within three years, Rome and Carthage were again at war again. 2nd Punic war The word Punic is derived from the Latin word Punicus which means Phoenician
The Romans were uneasy about the presence of Carthaginians in Sicily which made them fear the possibility of Carthaginian encroachment on the Italian coast.
In 264 B.C., suspicions from both sides lead the two powers into years of struggle for control of the western Mediterranean.
As both Rome and Carthage where experiencing exponential growth in territorial control, and military expansion the friction got more intense.
The First Punic War The war didn’t brake out till the Romans sent troops to Sicily to intervene in a struggle between two Sicilian cities and the Carthaginians saw the act Rome sending her troops to their sphere of influence as a just cause for war.
Rome developed a navy fleet and in (264B.C.) Both sides went to war for with the soul purpose of taking control of Sicily. 1st Punic war Around the fourth century B.C., the Roman army consisted of four legions, each made up of 4,000 to 5,000 men; each legion had about 300 cavalry and the rest infantry.
The infantry consisted of three lines of battle.
THE PRINCIPES (CHIEF MEN) THE TRIARII (THIRD-RANK MEN) A fourth group of troops, poor citizens who wore cloaks but no armor and were lightly armed, functioned as skirmishers.
In the early Republic, the army was recruited from citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty-six who had the resources to equip themselves for battle.
It was not until after the disastrous battle of Cannae in 216 B.C. that the Romans were forced to recruit larger armies, and the number of legions rose to twenty-five. Evolution of the Roman army THE HASTATI Women had rights but weren't fully citizens
The head of the family handled the affairs of his wife
Freedom of women depended on how rich their husbands were Roman Women The romans liked watching public games and the most popular were chariot races and gladiator contests
Gladiators were usually slaves, criminals or poor people but the successful ones were respected Cont’d Romans learnt a lot from Greek science
People like Galen who brought many medical ideas into Rome and Ptolemy who greatly influenced roman astronomy
Built numerous impressive roads
Had awesome water systems called aqueducts Science and Engineering Roman society and Culture Every household had an altar for offerings and the head of the family carried out these rituals out.
The priests believed in auspicious signs
Which were supposed signs from the gods
As the empire grew other religions were allowed as far as they didn’t threaten the governement Cont. Roman Gods -The ancient Romans worshiped many gods and goddesses
-Greek gods and goddesses were popular in Rome, although they were given Roman names
-Just like the Egyptians, Roman emperors were worshiped.
-strongly believed in Auspices Religion The paterfamilias organized marriages for his children.
Boy became men at the ages of 14-16
Girls only became women when they married cont. Head of the family was called paterfamilias meaning “father of the family”
It was his duty to guard his family and make sure his children were educated
Some hired tutors of sent their kids to Athens to study reading, writing and rhetoric
Older girls learnt reading, writing and household duties The typical Roman Family Slavery was a part of Roman life from early times but the use of slave labor grew as Rome took over more territory
Enslaved people did many different jobs. They worked in homes, fields, mines, and workshops. They helped build roads, bridges, and aqueducts.
For most enslaved people, life was miserable. They were punished severely for poor work or for running away. To escape their hardships, enslaved people often rebelled. Slaves in Rome Scene from the movie gladiator painting by Ben Hur showing a chariot racing event Roman authors based much of their writing on Greek works.
Also like the Greeks, the Romans enjoyed plays. Roman plays were often based on Greek tragedies and comedies. Roman literature The romans copied the Greeks in many ways
They changed what they copied to suit their needs. They were very different from the Greeks.
First to make concrete and use arches and use concrete
Built strong buildings and some have lasted to date. Roman Art and Architecture Rome was laid out in a square. At the center was the Forum which was an open space that served as a market place and public square
wealthy people lived differently from the poor people
The city was crowded noisy and dirty
The masses were kept from rioting by presentation of free food and games to watch Daily life Patricians (origin: patres – the fathers; patrician families descended from the original senators)
Aristocrats, Old landowning families
Non-patrician wealthy families (nouveau rich)
Patrician vs. Plebs
Tribunes of The Plebs
Council of The Plebs
Plebiscita (“plebescites” – opinion of the Plebs)
Decemviri (“ten men”)
Twelve Tables of Law (Leges Duodecim Tabularum)
Canuleian Law 445 B.C. (Provision to intermarry)
The Licinian – Sextian Law 367 B.C. (Allows Plebs to the Consulship)
The Hortensian Law
287 B.C.: Equality achieved constitutionally, but not so much in reality. Social Organisation
The family was the focal point of Roman society.
‘Paterfamilias’ – the head of the family.
A Roman citizen typically had two names, though three was not uncommon late in the Republic.
Praenomen – Forename / personal name
Nomen – Family name
Cognomen – extra personal name / or even a nickname
The clients were a dependent class. They depended on wealthy upper class members for percentage Following the fall of the monarchy:
Two Consuls were elected annually
- Administered government
- led the army to battle
366 B.C.: The Office of the Praetors was created, with the holder also possessing imperium
Primary role: Execution of justice
Could also administer government and lead the army in the absence of the Consuls
Quaestors: Financial assistants to the Consuls and Praetors
Aediles: Supervised public games and supervised the grain supply of the city
Censors: Chosen every fives years to assess the population
Dictators: Rulers of Rome in times of emergency. Limited to six months. The Roman Senate
The prominence and influence of this group grew as the Republic expanded and grew in strength.
Council of Elders
300 men (circa)
Not legislative, but advisory.
The most important of the Roman Republic popular assemblies
Roman army acting in its political role
Wealthiest citizens always had a majority
Elected magistrates and passed law Imperium – “right to command” embodied in an executive authority
Chief Magistrates – Exercised supreme power
- in office for limited term and had immunity stripped once out of office
“Imperium” as a concept remains constant through the centuries, even though the institutions changed and evolved.
Chief Executive Officers:
Praetors Political Institutions The Roman State
c. 509 – 264 B.C. The Roman Republic After Caesar’s death:
Octavian (Caesar’s adopted son and heir; grand nephew)
Took command of Caesar’s legions at only 19
Joined Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus to form the Second Triumvirate. Spokesman for the Populares
Served as Aedile and Praetor before seeking military command in Spain.
Joined with Pompey and Crassus – the first Triumvirate
Elected Consul 59 B.C.
Successful military commands in Gaul
Crossed the Rubicon Jan. 10, 49 B.C. And set on Rome
Returned triumphant to Rome 45 B.C. Caesar Optimates (“the best man”)
Sought to maintain the oligarchy
Populares (“favouring the people”)
Tried to break the dominance of nobiles with the people – Plebs.
Equestrians (The Equites: formerly of the Roman army’s cavalry)
Very wealthy through their handling of government and military contracts.
Sought political power by late 2nd century B.C. , matching their financial might. Division of the Aristocrats The Roman Conquest of Italy
Livy – Titus Livius Patavinus ( Historian)
Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City)
Livy’s stories: Somewhat modelled on the Greek history, taught Romans moral values and virtues.
Discipline The Senate makes two extraordinary military appointments, after Sulla’s death.
Crassus (112 – 53 B.C.)
Fought for Sulla
Very wealthy, said to “own most of Rome”.
Defeated the Slave Rebellion led by Spartacus 73 B.C.
Pompey (106 – 48 B.C.)
Fought for Sulla
Military command in Spain 77 B.C.
Military command to clear the Med sea of pirates 67 B.C.
Defeated Mithridates and reorganised the East The Death of The Republic Marius (Novus homo; Equite)
Consul 107 B.C. and 104 – 100 B.C.
New Roman Army
Consul 88 B.C.
Italian/Social War (90 – 80 B.C.)
Marched on Rome against Marius and Cinna
Became Dictator: reign of terror to clear oppostion Marius and Sulla Hannibal invaded Italy and destroys much of the small farmers’ lands
Soldiers returned from war to poor land, most sold to larger farmers (landowners)
The wealthy landowners built large landed estates called “Latifundia” with public land and peasant farmers’ lands; the latter they purchased.
The Reforms of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (133 B.C and 123-122 B.C.) The Land Problem Senate gained much power, effectively governing the Roman state, not by law, but by custom. Its advice had became law to consuls
Magistrates and Senate were increasingly controlled by a small minority of wealthy families – Patrician and Plebeian
Nobiles (Nobles) – Governing Oligarchy
233 – 133 B.C. 80pc of Consuls came from 26 families
50pc came from only ten families
“novus homo” – A New man who becomes a Consul The Decline and Fall of The Roman Republic Questions Do u think the roman conquest was mainly driven by defense or greed? http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-rome
http://www.forumromanum.org/history/morey01.html Sources Stek, Tesse. "Stek, T.D. 2008. Sanctuary and Society in Central-Southern Italy (3rd-1st centuries BC). A Study into Cult Places and Cultural Change after the Roman Conquest of Italy. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam. 320 p. Promotores: prof.dr M. Gnade,." Mnemosyne 63, no. 4 (October 2010): 705-706.
ED. Tourner, L. Havet and CH. Graux. The American Journal of Philology. Vol. 1. 1 vols. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University press, 1880. Discussion question
Considering the actions and results of the Generals (Marius, Sulla, Crassus, Pompey, Caesar and Octavian), does the end justify the means? What is the name of the famous slave that led the
slave revolt of 70,000 slaves? Side effects of greek values on the Romans - the creation of the roman empire began to weaken roman values
- by the 2nd century the process of building an empire had weakened the internal stability of Rome