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History of Africa
Transcript of History of Africa
History of Africa
Created by: Ann Grimshaw, Audrey Brooker, Jaime DeVita and Justine Kraus
Mansa Musa succeeds Mansa Abubakari II, as ruler of Mali Empire.
Mansa Musa came to throne when Mansa Abubakari went on his pilgrimage to Mecca, while he embarked on an expedition to explore the limits of the Atlantic Ocean, and never returned.
It was this pilgrimage that awakened the world to the stupendous wealth of Mali. Mansa Musa was accompanied by thousands of slaves and thousands of pounds of gold. Mansa Musa's purpose of his journey was to advertise Mali well beyond the African continent. Mansa Musa also wanted to stimulate a desire among the Muslim kingdoms of North Africa, and among many of European nations as well,
Mansa Musa makes his pilgrimage to Mecca
Ironwork flourishes in Meroe
Large Scale Iron Production
useful in helping with agriculture and construction work
Alexander the Great conquers Egypt
There was no resistance
When he reached the Memphis (the capital) he was welcomed by the Egyptians who were eager to join the his Hellenistic ways
Black Death reaches North Africa and kills over 1/4 of the population
Like other parts of the world, North Africa receives the plague through trade routes with the Islamic World and Europe.
The First Punic War takes place
Took place between Rome and Carthage (a North African city-state
Carthage- leading Maritime power (Naval power)
Carthage lost control of Sicily to Rome
First slaves brought to Portugal from Northern Mauritania, and the Portuguese make a contract with Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Portuguese made a contract with Africa for expansion, a quest for spices, to spread Christianity, to find more trade routes, and slavery , Overall, Portugal was trying to find wealth within Africa.
Concept of Leap Year developed by Egyptians
-Arabs conquer Egypt
-The Arab armies defeated the Byzantine armies and ruled Eygpt an founded the capital city of Egypt (Al Fustat)
-Arabs introduced Arabic as the new language in Egypt
Second Punic War
Carthage General- Hannibal
Carthage invaded Italy and ganed land, however was then defeated by Rome and lost a lot of territories
In the end Rome had most of Italy and Spain
King Menes unites Egypt into one kingdom
Egypt was previously divided into two kingdoms, the Upper and Lower kingdoms
First Portuguese missionaries arrive in Congo
-Islam sweeps across North Africa
The first Egyptian pyramid was constructed
The Pyramid of Djoser was built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser
Rosetta Stone Carved
carved in Memphis, Africa
Top- Egyptian Hieroglyphics
Middle- Demotic Script
Bottom- Ancient Greek
All 3 Sections say the same thing
Key to modern day understanding of Hieroglyphics
Carthage destroyed in Third Punic War by Rome
Founding of Axum
Located in present day Ethopia
Near the Red Sea
Little is known about it's involvement in trade, arts and religion
Egypt enters the "Old Kingdom"
The Old Kingdom was a long, politically stable, and prosperous time period for Egypt
Mummification processes were invented
The ruling class in Ancient Egypt developed a process to preserve the bodies of Pharaohs
Civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt flourish
ans, and Persians
Mentuhotep II wins control over Egypt and establishes the Middle Kingdom
the Middle Kingdom was known for power struggles and crop failures
Bantu-speaking tribes begin to spread through Africa from south of the Sahara
The first papyrus paper was made
This made communicating through writing easier
The New Kingdom begins in Egypt
It was during this time when Egypt became a world power in the ancient world
King Ramses II begins his reign of 67 years
King Ramses II was perhaps the greatest Pharaoh of Egypt
He created peace with his enemies, the Hittites
He was also a fierce warrior and well known Pharaoh
Libyans in the Egyptian army take control of the army and rule as Pharaohs
The Libyans were a nomadic group of people
An abbreviated version of hieroglyphics is created
This made communicating through writing more convenient
264 B.C.E-241 B.C.E
Portuguese missionaries came to Sub-Saharan Africa at the request of King Nzinga of Congo. The missionaries came to Africa to spread Christianity.
First slaves shipped to Spanish colonies in South America via Spain
Spain began to import African slaves, joining the transatlantic slave trade. Sugar cane production was highly profitable, based on slave labor. It slowly ended Native American slavery in the mainland of the Americas.
England begins to join the transatlantic slave trade
The English navigator John Hawkins makes his first voyage to Africa to receive about a thousand African slaves. The slave enterprise heats up later on in the 17th century.
The Dutch followed Portugal and Spain in establishing an overseas colonial empire. For this, they were aided by their skills in shipping and trade and established a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company
Dutch establish colony in South Africa at Cape of Good Hope
The Rosetta Stone is discovered
The Rosetta Stone was discovered by a soldier in the French Army. The Rosetta stone has deciphered a few ancient languages such as: Egyptian hieroglyphics, Greek text, and Demotic text.
218 B.C.E-202 B.C.E
-Rise of Axum/Aksum and conversion to Christianity
-Axum carved out churches from rocks, and wrote and interpreted religious texts
- The Roman Empire conquered Egypt, resulting in the majority of the population converting to Christianity.
-Bantu migration extends to southern Africa
-Bantu languages will predominate in central and southern Africa
- southeastern African societies become the stone city-states of Zimbabwe, Dhlo-Dhlo, Kilwa, and Sofala
-Following the death of Muhammad in 632 CE, The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the Arab Muslim expansion
-By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia,
-By the end of 641 all of Egypt in Arab hands.
- With the destruction of the Persian army at the Battle of Nihawānd in 642, the conquest of the Persian Empire was finished.
- at this point Arab military expeditions into North Africa were first launched which continued for years and resulted in the spread of Islam.
- Trading towns are formed on the east coast of Africa
-Growth of trans-Saharan gold trade across the sahel at southern boundary of the Sahara Desert,
-The sahel was the intensive point of contact and trade between sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa along with contact and trade along Atlantic and Indian Ocean seacoasts.
- Gold, kola nuts, and slaves were sent north in exchange for cloth, utensils, and salt. This trade enabled the rise of the great empires—Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
The kingdom of Ife in Nigeria becomes important for their art
Still used today
Important people were often depicted with large heads
- artists believed that the energy of someone was held within the head