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"Planning Lessons" Linda Jensen
Transcript of "Planning Lessons" Linda Jensen
Linda Jensen What is a Lesson Plan? Why make a lesson plan? When and How to make a lesson plan General Format of a lesson plan Tips on... Experienced teachers emphasize
these basic principles of lesson planning: Conclusion Definition: *A guide, resource, and historical document reflecting
one’s teaching philosophy, student population,
textbooks, and one’s goals for the students* Usually designed *informally* for only the teacher to see,but the plan may need to be written more *formally* when it needs to be shared with others. A well-developed lesson plan benefits:*teachers, administrators, observers, substitutes, and students* A good lesson plan guides, but does not dictate what and how we teach A map to guide teachers in knowing what they want to do next
A reminder of the goals and learning objectives for the students
A record of the class Why is it important to have a record? 1. Resource for the teacher when planning assessment measures of the material (such as quizzes, midterms & final exams)
2. Saves the teacher time and energy if the he/she instructs the same course again
3. *A guide for a substitute teacher in the primary teacher’s absence*
4. *Students expect their teachers to come prepared to teach each day*
A good lesson plan is a result of two types of planning: Macro and Micro *Macro* planning is philosophy of learning and teaching, or the combination of:
*Methodology, syllabus, texts, and materials* of a certain course that
are combined to make a daily lesson plan
Personal philosophy of learning and teaching includes:
knowledge of theories of second language acquisition and learner characteristics
familiarity with historical and current trends in second language pedagogy Why it would be ideal for the teacher’s employing institution to share a similar philosophy? *If philosophies of the teacher & employer match, their methodologies will likely be similar so:
More cohesion in implementing a syllabus & buying textbooks or other materials for the programs.* *Micro* planning is the addition of details or
fine tuning of a lesson In practice, some micro planning of lessons takes place the night before a class is taught.
If a novice teacher is responsible for both macro and micro planning, the teacher should consult or plan with fellow teachers for guidance. What are some things teachers should consider in planning their lesson? ** students’ backgrounds
skills to be taught
text & materials needed
connections to previous and future lessons.** 1.Brief description of class name and level
3.Date of the lesson
4.The competencies and standards addressed in the lesson
5.Grammatical structures and key vocabulary that will be
6.What has been covered in the previous class/ what students
should already know
7.Goals and objectives of lesson, including list of texts,
materials, and equipment needed (i.e. audiovisual aids)
Beginning Middle: Content 1. Procedures or activities
2. Transition notes
3. Time management notes
4. Class management notes
(i.e. Student seating arrangements
for different activities) What should be done before a new activity is started? *Begin lessons with a warm-up and/ or review activities*
that connect the day’s lesson with previous lessons in order to gain the students’ interest, and to give meaning to the subsequent tasks Next.. Present the new material & introduce the practice stages of the lesson Practice stages include:
1. Introduction of language form or content
2. Comprehension checked before guided practice is started
3. A less structured, communicative activity is used so students can practice the new information in a less controlled, more natural situation.
Communicative activities also help students integrate the new knowledge with knowledge from previous lessons.
4. Teacher and student evaluations of the effectiveness of the lesson to better shape future lessons
Challenges to prepare for: *transitions and links* between activities
Anticipate where a lesson may break down and note alternative plans
End: Conclusion 1. Review/summarize the lesson and relate the lesson to the homework
2. Note what needs to be covered (or reviewed) the next class session and any
unanswered questions from students
3. Note Any concerning student reactions to the lesson
4. Evaluate the success or failure of particular activities, reasons why, and
possible suggestions on how an activity could be improved
Evaluative comments are the most useful resource in future lesson planning Some instructors keep their lesson plans in organized notebooks, on note card or loose sheets of paper to be shuffled easily in class, or neatly typed and modified on computers (with a hard copy too in case of technological problems).
Include a box at the top of the lesson plan page that lists what materials, audiovisual aids, and any other details about what needs to be prepared and brought to class for the lesson
Also note any homework assignments that need to be returned or collected during the class
Homework should be posted in the same location consistently at the beginning or middle of a lesson so that students always know where to check for it and have time to write down assignments before the end of class.
Note the estimated amount of time alloted to each activity in margins, but be prepared to be flexible!
Inexperienced teachers should plan lessons that account for every minute of class time before the class. How to store your lesson plans Where to include reminders Assigning Homework How much of the lesson should be planned Three principles are:
*coherence, variety, and flexibility* 1.Coherence and flow:
links connect lessons across the entirety of the course
transitions between activities help students understand the rationale for each activity 2. Variety
variety in topics covered
and skills utilized
daily lessons vary in:
activities led by teacher and the students
amount of participation needed from students
classroom organization of activities (such as whole-class, small-group, pairs, individuals, etc.)
Mood of the lesson Why is this an important skill? a. *Teachers should judge when to change an activity during the class, even if the lesson plan says otherwise*
b. *If a teacher is not willing to accept spontaneous interesting student questions and digress from the anticipated direction, he/she may miss out on wonderful teaching opportunities* Lesson planning is the result of many other stages of preparation What are some important abilities of an ESL or EFL teacher in order to be an effective lesson planner? * know the principles of second language learning and teaching*
Recognize the needs of the institution and student population
See the big picture of the course
*Be aware of the goals and objectives for the entire term before planning weekly/ daily lessons*