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AP Biology Ocean Biome Presentation

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Joanna Kim

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of AP Biology Ocean Biome Presentation

an online travel brochure to a trip underwater Under the Sea everything you need to know about the depths of the ocean Basic Information - four major oceans: the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Arctic, & the Indian
- takes up about 70% of Earth's surface
- major landmarks (to name a few): Bering Strait, East China Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Java Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, etc. Geographic Distribution (the Bering Strait) (the Atlantic Ocean) - sun (light)
- water (salt) + water movement
- rocks
- sand
- oxygen
- predation system
- clouds
- temperature
- weather Abiotic Factors (ocean rocks) (sunlight) plants indigenous to the ocean Native Plants - type of algae
- some are bacteria, some are protists, but most are single-celled plants
- role: base of the food chain; prey to many marine organisms
- adaptations: ability to fix nitrogen due to low nitrogen levels; can form blooms despite short life spans; some are colored due to limited light; some are toxic to avoid predation Phytoplankton - rigid cell walls
- some have spines
- some are toxic
- can take circular, triangular, pillbox shape
- can live as single cells, chains, or colonies Diatoms - single cells with flagellum to swim
- some are like plants, while others are like animals
- some are bioluminescent or toxic Dinoflagellates - diverse
- small in size
- abundant Phytoflagellates - contain calcite plates of different shapes
- can turn seas a turquoise color Coccolithophores - not actual grass, but grass-like with leaf blades on stems
- in shallow coastal waters
- over 50 species
- role: habitat for many marine animals; some eat blades &roots while others scrape off parts of blades; predators search for prey in seagrasses
- adaptations: thick roots & rhizomes allow seagrasses to live in areas with waves and strong currents; flowering allows dispersion of seeds Seagrasses animals indigenous to the ocean Native Animals - not a star; actually an echinoderm
- present everywhere (from tropical habitats to cold seafloor)
- most common have 5 arms
- role: part of food chain (predator = manta rays, sharks, etc.; prey = shellfish, mussel, etc.)
- adaptations: uses sea water to transport nutrients through body; bony skin protects from predators; bright colors camouflage/scare predators; regenerate limbs by housing organs in arms; consume prey outside bodies Starfish - usually in beds or reefs of shallow waters
- usually oval or pear-shaped (shapes very according to location)
- role: great source of nutrients (calcium, iron, protein); part of food chain (predators = starfish, crabs, etc.; prey = algae & other particles)
- adaptations: strong muscles to close shells when attacked; can change gender; contains toxin in flesh Oyster - ten-legged crustaceans related to shrimp and crabs
- live in bottom of oceans and freshwater environments
- role: part of food chain (prey = fish, mollusks, etc.; predator = ground fish, human (mostly), etc.
- adaptation: highly developed senses of taste and smell to make up for poor eyesight Lobster - considered most intelligent invertebrates
- in tropical and temperate waters
- role: part of food chain (predators = sharks, eels, etc.; prey = crabs, crayfish, etc.)
- adaptations: can camouflage according to surroundings; releases black ink that dull predator's sense of smell; can regenerate arms; jaws that produce toxic saliva Octopus - pale blue and transparent
- box-like bell and tentacles
- role: part of food chain (predator = sea turtle; prey = fish, plankton, etc.)
- adaptations: venom contains toxins that attack heart, nervous system, skin cells to protect tentacles; can move; eyes with lens, retina, iris, cornea but no central nervous system Box Jellyfish - thin bodies resemble angelfish
- live in reefs
- bright colors (blue, red, orange, yellow)
- role: travel in small schools and mate for life; part of food chain (prey = worms, coral polyps, etc.; predator = bigger fish, sharks, etc.)
- adaptations: long, thin snouts for pecking at coral; dots on flanks to confuse predators Butterfly Fish - looks cranky (possible ugliest animal alive)
- lives in dark sea bottom
- dark gray or brown
- role: carnivore; males are small and dependent on females (latches unto females and fuses body into female's, except for testicles); females can have six or more mates
- adaptations: dorsal spine with luminous flesh to travel dark waters and attract males; sharp translucent teeth Angler Fish - found in temperate and tropical waters
- gray-brown or green with white bottoms
- role: part of food chain (prey: smaller fish, octopus, squid, etc.)
- adaptations: wide-set eyes give greater visual range; sensory organs detect electrical fields of stingrays; triangular teeth to attack and eat prey Hammerhead Shark - mostly inactive (lingers around sand)
- lives in shallow coastal waters
- role: part of food chain (predators = sharks, large rays, etc.; prey = mollusks, mussels, etc.)
- adaptations: color allows camouflage with seafloor; electrical sensors to sense prey; jaw teeth to crush prey; underside contains venom Stingrays - largest predatory fish
- do not actually eat humans, only "sample biting"
- role: part of food chain (prey: seals, sea turtles, small toothed whales, etc.)
- adaptations: grey upper bodies camouflage with sea floor; torpedo-shaped bodies for swimming fast; triangular teeth and sharp sense of smell for predation; can sense small electromagnetic fields from prey Great White Sharks the average weather of the ocean, and how to survive the conditions Weather Report Average Precipitation large areas of the tropical ocean get more than 3 m (115 inches) of rain each year.
(8 mm/day in the figure below) - average temperature: 39°F (4°C)
- ocean waters are layered, each layer with different temperature
- deeper layers = colder
- most of cold outflow transfers from Arctic Ocean into Atlantic Ocean via a strong current known as the Transpolar Drift Average Temperature - scuba diving wetsuits
- air tank (very important)
- snorkels
- goggles/masks
- fins
- waterproof hoods/vests
- blades/knives
- underwater digital camera Suggested Supplies/Gear the "must-sees" and "must-dos" of the ocean! Main Attractions - underwater diving activity
- includes cave diving, ice diving, wreck diving, deep diving
- can see and photograph dozens of underwater creatures
- use open-circuit regulators to breathe (provides atmospheric air)
- can experience hazards such as pressure injuries (barotrauma) or physical injuries from creatures
- average time: 45 min.
- average costs: $250 - $300 Scuba Diving - swimming on or through body of water with only a snorkel and swim fins
- observe natural setting of underwater life without complicated equipment
- snorkel tube = typically 30 centimeters long
- greatest danger = getting hit by jet skis, speed boats, etc. Snorkeling - world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands
- located in Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia
- biggest single structure made by living organisms (coral polyps)
- environmental pressures = runoff, climate change, coral bleaching, cyclic population outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish
- tourism generates $1 billion per year The Great Barrier Reef - British passenger line that sank in North Atlantic Ocean on April 15, 1912 after colliding with iceberg
- caused deaths of 1,502 people
- wreck remains on seabed, split in two but gradually disintegrating
- discovered in 1985 Shipwreck of RMS Titanic - water covers 72% of Earth's surface, so all biomes are pretty much near the ocean biome Nearby Biomes threats to the ocean Warnings - pollution: cause of dumping pollutants so animals die
- overfishing: large populations of fish are caught in exceeding amounts; disrupting food chain from top to bottom
- factory fishing: giant factory ships use high-tech equipment to vacuum school of fish
- bottom trawling: fishing method of dragging metal chains across ocean floor
- whaling: Japan used whales to conduct "scientific research"; killed hundreds of whales Threats Endangered Species - endangered species due to human destruction and/or natural causes - global warming: sea level rises and ocean temperature rises, causing animals to die due to change in condition Climate Change Global Importance - source of food and minerals (10% of human protein intake = comes from ocean)
- used for commerce
- provides recreational activities
- also used for waste disposal
- regulates climate and weather (ex. El Nino effect = abnormal warming of ocean waters)
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