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Chapter 1 Section 1- The Colonies Fight for Their Rights
Transcript of Chapter 1 Section 1- The Colonies Fight for Their Rights
The French and Indian War
The French and English had been rivals for
in Europe since the late 1600's.
When England and France went to war their colonies did as well.
The First Skirmish
.The Ohio River Valley had become a very important economic and military asset due to its importance as a transportation hub.
.Both France and England attempted to take control of the land by building forts along the Ohio River Valley
George Washington- British Officer
.In an attempt to counter the French the Governor of Virginia commissioned the building of a British fort. This fort was quickly seized by the French and renamed Fort Duquesne.
. A 22 year old George Washington was then charged with retaking the fort. Although Washington was unsuccessful he gained fame for his courageous resistance at Fort Necessity.
George Washington-British Officer
The Albany Conference
The Albany Conference
was a meeting between delegates of 7 colonies and Iroquois leaders in Albany, New York.
This meeting achieved several things including:
-The guarantee of Iroquois Neutrality
-The colonies agreed that all British troops will be commanded by one supreme commander.
Issued the Albany Plan of Union
The Albany Plan of Union
Albany Plan of Union
- A plan proposed by a committee led by Benjamin Franklin. The plan of Union proposed that the colonies unite to form a federal government. Although the colonies rejected the plan, it showed that many colonial leaders had begun to think about joining together for their common defense.
The British Triumph
General Edward Braddock
In 1755 a new British, Edward Braddock general and his 1,400 troops landed in Virginia.
General Braddock underestimated his enemy and pushed on to Fort Duquesne.
7 miles from the fort Braddock and his men were ambushed by a French and Indian force killing Braddock and scattering his men.
If it wasn't for his aide Lt. Col. George Washington forming a retreat many more lives would have been lost.
French and India or 7 Years War?
Fighting in the colonies soon spread to Europe where it became known as the
7 years war
After Braddock's defeat the British began to use their superior naval forces to blockade the French in the colonies.
With no new supplies coming in the French soon lost their Native support and despite joining with the Spanish were forced to surrender in 1763 by signing the
Treaty of Paris.
The Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris
Ended the war
With the exception of a few offshore colonies it ended French power in North America.
All French territory east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans, became part of the British Empire.
Spain gave Florida to Britain to get Cuba and the Philippines back.
The French then gave Spain control of New Orleans and all French territory west of the Mississippi.
The end of the war left the country deeply in
causing the British government to rely more on the colonists for income.
The Pontiac War and the Proclamation of 1763
After the loss of French influence on the frontier many English colonists moved into Indian lands provoking Indian aggression.
In the Spring of 1763 many Indian tribes, under the leadership of Pontiac chief of the Ottawa, allied to form a sizable group. They then commenced attacking frontier forts and towns.
The Pontiac War prompted King George III to issue the
Proclamation of 1763.
Proclamation of 1763
Britain did not want to pay for another war or risk harming the fur trade.
The Proclamation of 1763
drew a line from north to south along the Appalachian mountains and ordered colonists not to settle to the west of that line.
This further enraged many colonists who felt they had a right to access the land.
Debt and Custom Reform
British debt had piled up after the war and by 1763 Britain had to find a way not only to pay for the war, but the
10,000 troops now in the colonies
Eastern merchants had long been smuggling goods into the country without paying
The British cracked down on smuggling by setting up new courts in Nova Scotia that were much more harsh then those of the colonies.
Customs duties are taxes on imports and exports.
Why might the new courts have angered the colonists?
The Sugar Act of 1764
allowed goods to be seized and prevented lawsuits by the merchants they had been seized from.
Many colonists were enraged that Britain was taxing Americans while America had no representation in the British government.
This is the period in which the term "
No taxation without representation
" is coined.
"No taxation without representation"
The Stamp Act of 1765
Outrage and the Sons of Liberty
By the spring of 1765 word of the Stamp Act and remaining outrage of the Sugar Act prompted a huge debate throughout the colonies.
An organization known as the
Sons of Liberty
used this debate and began organizing demonstrations and intimidating customs officials.
Many colonists began boycotting British goods and many colonial merchants signed
-An agreement not to buy British goods until Parliament repealed the Stamp Act.
Basically France gave up its land and England is broke.
The Boycott works.....YAY!....or does it?
Consequences of The Townshend Acts
Colonists became even more infuriated as the British continued to silence their voice in politics and to tax them even more.
This frustration turned to violence in Boston towards British officials.
This violence prompted the British to send around 1,000 troops to maintain order in Boston.
This set the stage for the
After the Boston Massacre a revolution seemed on the horizon, but Parliament finally saw fit to repeal almost all of the Towshend Acts taxes and allow colonial assemblies to meet once again. War had been avoided or so it seemed...dun dun dun!