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Elements and Principles of Design

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Mark Wavra

on 18 February 2016

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Transcript of Elements and Principles of Design

Line
Shape
Value
Form
Texture
Color

Balance
Emphasis
Movement
Repetition
Proportion
Variety
Unity

Elements are
objective
terms
People should agree on these;
Empirical--they can be counted and measured
Principles are all
subjective
terms:
They represent ways of applying and arranging the elements
Principles can be interpreted in different ways
Intelligent people may disagree about interpretations
Disagreements are interesting if both people can make a case for their interpretation
Balance
Does it lean to one side?
Is it top or bottom heavy?
Is it symmetrical?
Where is the fulcrum?
Where is the center of gravity?
Emphasis
Who is the star of the show?
What's the main point?
Who are the supporting players?
Is there a hierarchy?
Movement
What is the eye path?
Is it a once-through, or do I loop?
Is there supposed to be an order?
Patterns
repeat
Is it a pattern or a design?
What comes next?
Is it simple or complex?
Repetition
What repeats?
How frequently?
What is the effect?
Proportion
What are the size relationships?
Do some things seem too big or too small?
Is anything being exaggerated for emphasis?
Are there too many or too few of anything?
Variety
Is it interesting?
Is there too much of any one thing?
Could it use more of something?
Are there surprises?
What is the
spice
?
Unity
Do all the things go together?
Does it feel complete?
Would it be better without something?
Is something missing?
Does something need to be integrated?
Principles of Design
Elements of Design
Value
Brightness
Darkness
Contrast
Scale
Gradient
Texture
Visual
Tactile
Surface quality
Space
Depth
Levels (above and below)
Layers (near and far)
Foreground
Middle ground
Background
Overlapping
Ground plane
Linear perspective (1, 2, 3+ point)
Atmospheric perspective
Size
Color
Detail
Line
Pure
Weighted
Broken
Bold
Fine
Angles
Curves
Horizontal
Vertical
Diagonal
Shape
Enclosed
Implied
Geometric
Free form
Positive
Negative
Line
Shape
Value
Form
Texture
Color
Space
Line
Pure
Weighted
Broken
Line weight
Horizontal
Vertical
Diagonal
Angles
Curves
Pure line
has a consistent width or weight to it
Mechanical pencils and graphic pens are designed to make pure lines
Pure lines can
be either thick
or thin
Weighted lines

vary in width
They transition from
thick to thin
Chisel-tip, wedge-tip and brush-tip
instruments are great for making
weighted lines
Weighted lines have
personality and character
Broken lines
are not solid, they come
and go
Broken lines "open the figure"
and let give the piece a more
relaxed and natural feeling
Line weight
is how thick or thin the line is
What drawing tool you choose and how much pressure you apply determines the line weight
Line direction
Horizontal
lines lie down tend to be relaxing
Vertical
lines stand up and tend to
confer power and authority
Diagonal
lines tend to be active
and suggest movement
When lines change directions, you get
angles
or
curves
.
Nature doesn't make a lot of angles, so really angular stuff looks like it was made by humans. A lot of people think of angles as being
masculine
.
Really curvy stuff looks more natural and organic, and a lot of people think curves are
feminine
.
Terms like
masculine
and
feminine
are really subjective, but you're always safe with
angular
and
curvy
.
Shape
Enclosed
Implied
Geometric
Free form
Positive
Negative
Enclosed
shape
Implied
shape
The key is the positive shape and
the skyline is the negative shape
Geometric
shapes are
symmetrical
and composed of straight lines and
angles or consistent arcs
Freeform
shapes are
asymmetrical
and can be composed of any
combination of angles and curves
Positive
means you add, like putting ink on paper, and
negative
means you take away, like erasing or cutting out.
Value
Gradient
Value scale
High contrast
Low contrast
High key
Low key
Gradient scale
Value scale
Gradients
gradually
travel from dark to light without abrupt changes
Value scales
stair step
incrementally from dark to light
High contrast

Low contrast

High key

Low key
Form
Basic forms
Planar surfaces
Curved surfaces
Highlights
Half tones
Form shadows
Cast shadows
Reflected light
Light source(s)
Direct light
Ambient light
Geometric forms Organic forms Voids
Complex forms
The
basic forms
include the following:
sphere
box
cylinder
cone
torus
Planar surfaces
are flat and
generally have one value
Forms with
curved surfaces
generally have
gradient transitions from dark to light
The part closest to the light source
is usually the
highlight
The parts of the form farthest from the lights source are usually in
shadow
Cast shadows
are generally darkest closest to the body of the form. The shape of the shadow relates to the shape of the form
Look for
reflected light
in the shadows
Direct light
makes creates high contrast and the shadows have sharper edges
Diffused light
is good for subtle values and shadows with soft edges
Reflected light
bounces back on the form and throws a little light in the shadows
Forms can be either
geometric
or
organic
and they can either be solid or have
voids
Complex forms
are made by combining basic forms. The human head has parts of all the basic forms. Look for spheres, boxes, pyramids, cones, hemispheres, etc.
Form
Basic forms
Planar surfaces
Curved surfaces
Highlights
Half tones
Form shadows
Cast shadows
Reflected light
Light source(s)
Direct light
Ambient light
Geometric forms Organic forms Voids
Complex forms
Texture
Visual
Tactile
Visual textures
are drawn to resemble surfaces,but if you run your hand across the drawing, the paper still feels smooth
Tactile textures
are actual textures on surfaces or rubbings from actual surfaces
Color
Hue
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Value
Tints
Shades
Tones
Intensity
Complementary
Analogous
Harmony
Palette
Color schemes
Split complements
Triads
Monochrome
Symbolic
Emotional
Hues
are spokes on the color wheel,
when somebody asks "what color?"
they mean hue because color implies
hue, value and intensity.
Primary colors
are the basics, you can't mix them, they just are
Mix primary colors to get
secondary colors
Primary and secondary colors combine to create
tertiary colors
Primary = 1, secondary = 2, tertiary = 3
You can get different
values
of a color by mixing with white or black
Complementary colors
live directly across the color wheel from one another; they are color opposites and they contrast with each other
Mixing a color with its complement creates a tone; a
tone
is has less
intensity
than a pure hue
The green pear stands out from the red background because green and red are complementary colors; complementary colors create striking
harmonies
Complementary Colors
Analogous Colors

Analogous colors
are adjacent on the color wheel, and since they are neighbors, they relate really well
Using analogous colors together creates mellow
harmonies
Color can be used
symbolically
, but the meanings of colors are cultural, not universal. For instance, red can either be romance or rage, yellow can be either cowardly or wealthy, blue can be calm or depressed, white can be virginal or dead, and green be either natural or sick. Color can also evoke strong
emotional
responses in people, but this also varies from person to person based on their experiences. See the following web site for an interesting discussion of the meanings of certain colors:
http://www.colour-affects.co.uk/psychological-properties-of-colours
Split complementary
color schemes take a hue and its complement's neighbors; it's a playful scheme because it takes two related colors and includes an accent color
Triads
take three colors that are evenly spaced from one another. For example, primary colors are a triad, secondary colors are a triad. These make for bold color schemes.
Monochrome
color schemes use tints, tones and shades of a single hue. They are useful when you want color in a piece but you don't want to taste the rainbow.
Color schemes
When designers come up with a
palette
for a project, we call that limited number of colors the
color

scheme
. whether it's a room, an outfit or a poster. There's usually a reason for the color choices, but sometimes the choice is intuitive
Color
Hue
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Value
Tints
Shades
Tones
Intensity
Complementary
Analogous
Harmony
Palette
Color schemes
Split complements
Triads
Monochrome
Symbolic
Emotional
Space
Depth
Levels (above and below)
Layers (near and far)
Foreground
Middle ground
Background
Overlapping
Ground plane
Atmospheric perspective
Linear perspective (1, 2, 3+ point)
Diminishing size
Color perspective
Diminishing detail
Setting up space starts with putting something in front and something behind, but there are a few more considerations... How close? How far? These are keys to creating
depth
.
A good place to start is to set up at least three
levels
(stacking up low, middle and high objects) and three
layers
(
overlapping
near, medium and far objects).
The stuff that is near becomes the
foreground
, and it is
loaded with detail
, the
middle ground
has
less detail
than the foreground, and the
background
has
even less detail
Atmospheric perspective
happens when dust or moisture in the air obscures details that happen in the distance
When patterns or textures fade out as they recede into the background we call that
diminishing detail
A good place to start is to set up a
ground plane
by creating a horizon line. A ground plane doesn't have to be flat
When things get smaller as they recede into the background we call that
diminishing size
One-point perspective
Two-point perspective
What systems of perspective are at work here?
Color perspective
happens when colors lose their intensity as they get further away
Balance
Emphasis
Movement
and Repetition

Proportion
Variety
Unity
Principles are things to consider when composing works
Format
Composition:
what is in the work of art
how big it is
where it is placed: right/left, above/below, front/back
Values and colors play major parts
the dominant shapes that things are arranged in; how things are grouped, how closely are they grouped
the path the eye follows through the work

Symmetry
Symmetrical
Diagonal Balance
Horizontal composition
Vertical
composition
Asymmetry
Asymmetrical Balance
When setting up a composition, a strong choice is to place your subject a on thirds rather than on the center line or half
Right third or left third
Upper third or lower third
It doesn't need to stand on the ground
to need balance
Make it different from the others
Repetition creates a Rhythm
Movement is the path your eye takes through the piece
"Perfect Proportions" is an idea that has been considered for a thousands of years
and we have used it to judge the beauty of things
Mathematicians have given it a name (The Golden Mean),
a number (1.61803398875), and a diagram
As we age, our head-to-body proportion changes
All patterns are repeat, but not all repetitions are patterns
Layout
Variety increases visual interest
Variety creates an appreciation of difference
A variety of flavors can complement one another
Having everything the same can be boring...
but a little difference is all it takes
Variety and Unity are closely linked
We all have a need to belong: unity
We all have a need to be different: variety
The choices we make reflect the balance between fitting in
and remaining unique
I'm showing my age, but the mixed tape was a way of expressing the variety of your musical tastes...among other things
Line, shape, value, color, texture, flavor
Line, form, color, temperature, flavor...
Gumball is a testament to variety: different species and different styles of animation
Variety occurs naturally
Variety is essential for recognition
Unity harmoniously unites all the different parts of a work
Unity can come from something superficially applied to the pieces
Unity can be created by making things in a similar style
To unify...
individuals...
must agree upon...
a group identity
They may retain their individuality
or not
A common motif may unify several works
Nature creates both variety and unity
improvising with shapes
Nesting shapes
Tessellations
Notan
Silhouettes
Relationships
Thumbprints
Stippling
Cross Hatching
Scribbling
Hatching
Henry Moore
Isamu Noguchi
Jean Arp
Louise Nevelson
Dale Chihuly
Richard Serra
Create a "Line Variety" Composition
Pages 1-2
Create a "Shape Variety" Composition
Pages 3-4
Create 6 Value Scales
Pages 5-6
Show Understanding of Drawing Forms
Pages 7-8
Create several "Texture Forms"
Pages 9-10
Color Wheel and Color Schemes
Pages 11-12
Elements Booklet
Pages 1-2: Line Variety Composition
Pages 3-4: Shape Variety Composition
Pages 5-6: Value Scales
Pages 7-8: Basic Form Studies
Pages 9-10: Texture Studies
Pages 11-12: Color Schemes
Practice 1
Practice 2
Test 1
Test 2
Test 3
Test 4
Test 5
Test 6
Full transcript