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Jigsaw

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Elizabeth Wilson

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Jigsaw

What is the Jigsaw Technique? School context & Rationale How has it been
used in the past? Method Data Collection and Analysis Results
“I liked finding out what chemists sold, and doing the labels”
“It was fun”
“I learnt about all the different things shops sell”
“My group members helped me do my labels, and think of other things”
“My group helped me write the words”
“My group members were nice to me”
“I had a good chat about what a butcher sells, and my group liked my ideas”
“I didn’t like it when people said I did the wrong thing, when I didn’t”
“I didn’t like it when I was trying to do my own work”
“We worked well together” When informally questioned about the group work, it appears that the students mainly enjoyed working together: One student even asked on a few occasions: "Are we doing our groups today?"

The jigsaw technique is a collaborative learning technique where students are split into small groups to learn about a specific aspect of a topic.

Once they have learnt their aspect of the topic, they are re-grouped with people who learnt other aspects. Students must then explain to the rest of this group what their aspect entailed, and hear what their peers' aspects entailed to gain a broader understanding of the whole topic. In a nutshell... Student worksamples were collected Research has found... 6 Step process... Step 1 (Names have been changed) Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Divide students into heterogenous groups of mixed ability, gender, and separate close friends as well as conflicting personalities. Gather baseline data on students' ability to work in groups. Conduct the first lesson of the jigsaw technique. Reflect on the first jigsaw lesson, and execute a second phase. New PBEL Program... Devise a unit of work that incorporates the jigsaw technique into at least 2 of its lessons. Step 6 Reassess students using prior knowledge activity to see any improvement Habitat Diet Reproduction Classification Baseline results showed.... Aronson, E. and Bridgeman, D. (1979). Jigsaw Groups and the Desegregated Classroom: In Pursuit of Common Goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 5. No. 4, pp.438-446.
Blocher, J. M. (2005): Increasing learner interaction: using Jigsaw online. Educational Media International, 42:3, pp.269-278
Chiu, M. M. (2000). Group problem solving processes: Social interactions and individual actions. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 30, 1, 27-50.600-631.
Davis, Barbara Gross. 1993. Tools for Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Dillenbourg, P. (1999). Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series. New York, NY: Elsevier Science, Inc
Doymus K (2007). The effect of a cooperative learning strategy in the teaching of phase and one-component phase diagrams. J. Chem. Educ., 84(11): 1857-1860.
Elmore, R.F. and Zenus, V. (1994). Enhancing social-emotional development of middle school gifted students. Roeper Review, 16.
Emmer, ? Gerwels ? (2002).
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Yazidan, L., and Powell, S. (2002). Enhancing first grade children’s mathematical development with peer assisted learning strategies. School Psychology Review, 31(4).
Hallinan, M. (1984). Summary and Conclusoions. In P. Peterson, L.C. Wilkinson, and M. Hallinan (Eds.), The social context of group instruiction: Group organisation and group processes (pp.229-240). Orlando:Florida: Academic Press
Hedeen T (2003). The Reverse Jigsaw: A process of cooperative learning and discussion. Teach. Sociol., 31(3): 325-332.
Holliday DC (2000). The development of jigsaw in a secondary social studies classroom. Paper presented at the 2000 Midwest Educational Research Association (MWERA) Annual Conference in Chicago, IL.
Holliday, D. C. 2002. Jigsaw IV: Using student/teacher concerns to improve jigsaw III. ERIC ED465687.
Johnson, D.. Johnson, R. and Holubec, E. (1994). Cooperative Learning in the classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
King, L.H.(1993). High and low achievers’ perceptions and cooperative learning in two small groups. The Elementary School Journal, 93(4).
Macias, C.Aronson, E. Barriera, P. Rodican, C. and Gold, P. (2007). Integrating Peer Providers into Traditional Service Settings: The Jigsaw Strategy in Action. Adm Policy Ment Health 34:494-496.
Mendugo, Q. and Xiaoling, J. (2010). Jigsaw Strategy as a Cooperative LearningTechnique: Focusing on the Language Learners, Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics (Bimonthly) Vol. 33 No. 4
Mesch, D. (1991). The Jigsaw Technique: A Way to Establish Individual Accountability in Group Work, Journal of Management Education 15: 355.
Morgan, B. Rodriquez, A. and Rosenberg, G. (2008). Cooperative Learning, Jigsaw Strategies, and Reflections of Graduate and Undergraduate Education Students, College Teaching Methods and Styles Journal, Vol. 4 No. 2.
NSW Board of Studies. (2007). Syllabus: English K-6: NSW Board of Studies: Sydney.
NSW Board of Studies. (2006). Human Society and Its Environment K-6 Syllabus. NSW Board of Studies: Sydney
NSW Board of Studies. (1999). Human Society and Its Environment K-6 Units of Work. NSW Board of Studies: Sydney
NSW Institute of Teachers (2010). Professional Teaching Standards. Retrieved May 2nd, 2012 from http://www.nswteachers.nsw.edu.au/Main-Professional-Teaching-Standards/
Piaget, J. (1929). The Child’s Conception of the World. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc: United Kingdom
Slavin RE (1987). Cooperative learning: Student teams, what research says to teachers (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Smith, B. L., & MacGregor, J. T. (1992). “What Is Collaborative Learning?". National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment at Pennsylvania State University
Stahl R (Ed). (1994). Cooperative learning in social studies: A handbookfor teachers. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walker, I. & Crogan, M. (1998). Academic performance, prejudice, and the jigsaw classroom: New pieces to the puzzle. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 8, pp. 381–393.
Wheeler Heights Public School Annual Report (2011). Retrieved 24th July, 2012 from http://www.wheelerhts-p.schools.nsw.edu.au/forparents.html
Wilkinson, L. C. (1988). Chapter 5: Grouping Children for Learning: Implications for Kindergarten Education. In Review of Research in Education 15:203 The Class...
2 students working beyond the kindergarten level

1student with suspected high functioning autism

2 IM (Intellectually Moderate) students

5 students have a cultural background other than Australian, however they all speak English at home 20 students: 11 boys, 9 girls Mixed abilities: The problem... Kindergarten politics gets in the way of learning.

Conversations at tables erupt about who is invited to birthday parties, who is and isn’t friends etc.

This is disturbing to other students, and often ends with the teacher having to stop and intervene. After a whole class demonstration, students were split into their groups for the first time. They were all given a blank semantic map and told to work together to draw and label the needs of an allocated pet e.g. bird, rabbit, guinea pig, or cat. Students were given a piece of jigsaw. The bakers were told to sit at a particular table and discuss what they sold, likewise for the butchers, grocers, and chemists. While in their 'expert' groups, they had to complete a semantic map to bring back to their coloured jigsaw group to discuss what their person sold. The first jigsaw activity was found to lack explicit instruction. When done a second time, with teachers, doctors, dentists, and policemen, students were provided with far more structure for completing the task. References Students mainly enjoyed the experience.

Low achievers really did benefit - their work samples showed the most improvement.

Can only really be used as a prior-knowledge activity, students didn't learn anything new - difficult for kindergarten as they don't have the research skills needed.

Results affected by student absenteeism - something that cannot be helped.

The reason for undertaking the project was to see if it would quell some of the arguments breaking out in the classroom - it did not. However, it did work during the jigsaw activities - it was observed that students stayed on task, and did not deviate discussion away from the topic.

Communication between students improved despite the quantative data indicating otherwise - the transcripts showed that their communication improved. Step 2 Low achieving students helped and encouraged by their peers, yet some students find it difficult to trust the ability of their group members to provide them with all of the important information (Morgan, Rodriguez and Rosenberg , 2008).

Students must be taught the interaction skills needed in order to facilitate each others’ thinking rather than simply providing the answers (Emmer and Gerwels, 2002).

According to Wilkinson (1988), homogenous grouping of student ability is the most common and most effective way to perform collaborative learning.

Holliday (2002) believes students must be observed to ensure participation by everyone. This generally takes the form of a student self evaluation and a teacher evaluation. Collect data on student prior knowledge of needs and wants First Jigsaw Activity Worksamples First Jigsaw Activity Transcript Notes from whole class discussion after the first jigsaw activity

Teacher: “Kendi, what shop were you?”
Kendi: “Umm, the one with the vegetables…and the fruit shop.”
Teacher: “Kendi, what did the butcher sell?”
Kendi: “Mmm…bananas?” (unsure)
Teacher: “The butcher sells bananas? The butcher? Who was the butcher in Kendi’s group? Kendi, what colour was your jigsaw?”
Kendi: “Yellow”
Teacher: “Ok, who was the yellow butcher?”
Antoinette: (raises her hand)
Teacher: “Kendi, what was something that Antoinette sold in her shop?”
Kendi: “I can’t remember”
Teacher: “Ok, Antoinette, can you think of something that Kendi sold in her fruit and vegetable shop?”
Antoinette: (nods)
Teacher: “What was that?”
Antoinette: “A banana”
Teacher: “Amazing, let me see, someone else…Kai, what were you, a butcher, a baker, a grocer?”
Kai: “I can’t remember”
Luke: “I remember! He was a chemist!”
Teacher: “Kai, you were a chemist, who was in your coloured jigsaw group? Let me see…Bianca. Bianca, what were you?”
Bianca: “a Baker”
Teacher: “Kai, what was something Bianca sold in her shop? In the bakery?”
Kai: “Cupcakes?”
Teacher: “Cupcakes, fabulous! Bianca, what was something that Kai sold in his shop?”
Bianca: “Medicine.”
Teacher: “She was thinking, good girl! Let me see, Jiame, what shop were you working in?”
Jaime: “The Chemist”
Teacher: “Let me see, who was in your coloured group? Sam, what did Jaime sell in her shop…she was in the chemist”
Sam: “Pills, waterpills, toys and lollies”
Teacher: “Great job! Sam, who were you?”
Sam: “I was a butcher”
Teacher: “Jaime can you remember something Sam sold in his butcher shop?”
Jaime: “Hmm, ham….meat…meatballs”
Teacher: “Next person, Ashton, what kind of shop were you?”
Ashton: “Potatoes!”
Teacher: “What shop were you?”
Ashton: “Umm…fruit and vegetables”
Teacher: “Ashton, what coloured puzzle piece did you have?”
Ashton: “Red”
Teacher: “Ok, let me see who else had red? Jersey! Can you tell me something Ashton sold in his fruit and vegetable shop?”
Jersey: “He sold bananas”
Teacher: “What else did he sell darling?”
Jersey: “Potatoes, hmmm…..oh! He sold….He sold…I’ve forgotten”
Teacher: “Antoinette, what was your shop?”
Antoinette: “I was a butcher”
Teacher: “Lex, you were in Antoinette’s group, what else did she sell in her butcher shop?”
Lex: “Sausage”
Teacher: “Can you think of anything else?”
Lex: “No”
Teacher: “Antoinette, Lex was a chemist, what did he sell in his shop?”
Antoinette: “Baby bottles and ears pierced”
Teacher: “Maya, can you tell me something that the green grocer sells?”
Maya: “Apples and carrots”
Teacher: “Well done. Alice, can you tell me something that the butcher sells?”
Alice: “Sausages and meat”
Teacher: “Ashton, can you tell me something the chemist sells?”
Alice: “Medicine”
Teacher: “ Kendi can you tell me something that the baker sells?”
Kendi: “Bikinis”
Teacher: “The baker sells bikinis?”
Kendi: “Yeah, like a cucumber!”
Teacher: “Oh zucchinis! Does the baker sell zucchinis?”
Kendi: “Oh, no, the fruit and vegetable shop sells them, not the baker!” Second Jigsaw Activity Worksamples Notes from whole class discussion after the second jigsaw activity

Teacher: “Alright, let me see, hands up if you were a policeman? Hey Jersey, what does a dentist do?”
Jersey: “They check if you are ok”
Teacher: “What do they check in particular?”
Jersey: “They check your throat”
Teacher: “They do check your throat, but what do they check in particular?”
Jersey: “Your teeth!”
Teacher: “Well done, they do. Let me see, who else was a policeman? Hugo, can you tell me something that a teacher does?”
Hugo: “They teach us about trees, Olympic rings….and elephant poo!”
Teacher: “Well, that’s true. That was an interesting conversation this morning. Hands up if you were a dentist? Lex, what does a doctor do?”
Lex: “They give us medicine.”
Teacher: “Good job, what else do they do, Kye?”
Kye: “They take us in an ambulance”
Teacher: “The doctors go in an ambulance do they?”
Lex: “No!”
Teacher: “The ambulance might take you to a doctor though. Ok, Luke, what were you?”
Luke: “Doctor”
Teacher: “Can you tell me something that a policeman does?”
Luke: “But I was a doctor”
Teacher: “I know, but I’m seeing if you were listening to your group members. What did your group member tell you that a policeman does”
Luke: “They go in jail…and umm, policeman have guns, and I know something nobody said, they have electric guns”
Teacher: “They do have tasers, you’re right. How do they help us though? What do they do to help us?”
Alice: “They take the robbers away”
Teacher: “Well done. Sam, what were you darling?”
Sam: “A policeman”
Teacher: “Okay Sam, can you tell me something that a teacher does?”
Sam: “They make us learn”
Teacher: “They do make you learn. I like the way you said that Sam. Hey Braxton, what were you?”
Braxton: Looks blankly
Teacher: “You were a teacher I think. Can you tell me something that the dentist does?”
Braxton: “They drill your teeth”
Teacher: “You are right! Well done! You were listening weren’t you? Hey Jaime, what were you?
Jaime: “I was a dentist”
Teacher: “Ok, can you tell me something about what a policeman does? What did your group member teach you about policemen? What do they do?”
Jaime: “Get people in jail. They have big guns”
Teacher: “Well done, they do. Hey Ashton what were you?”
Ashton: “A teacher”
Teacher: “What did Jersey teach you about what a policeman does?”
Ashton: “They have guns”
Teacher: “What else? How do they help us?
Ashton: “They get prisoners into the jails”
Teacher: “They sure do. Hey Luke, what were you?”
Luke: “A doctor”
Teacher: “Hey Luke, can you tell me what a teacher does?”
Luke: “Umm,…they teach you stuff”
Teacher: “They do indeed, what do they teach you?”
Luke: “Teach you about elephants, trees, and teachers!”
Teacher: “Hey Jonah, what were you?”
Jonah: “A doctor”
Teacher: “Can you tell me something that a dentist does?”
Jonah:”They clean our teeth”
Teacher: “They do, what else do they do?”
Jonah: “Take out teeth that don’t come out when they are wobbly”
Teacher:” Hey Kendi, who were you?”
Kendi: “I was the teacher”
Teacher: “Hey Kendi, who was the doctor in your group?”
Kendi: “Luke”
Teacher: “What did Luke tell you about what doctors do darling?”
Kendi: “They give you medicine?”
Teacher: “They do, you’re right!” "The child sees everything from his own point of view. He has not yet discovered the multiplicity of possible perspectives and remains blind to all but his own as if that were the only one possible"

- Jean Piaget (1929) Second Jigsaw Activity Transcript Jigsaw forces students to work together towards a common goal, and was originally devised to combat prejudice in the class. In addition, it was found to increase morale, self esteem, empathy, and academic achievement (Aaronson and Bridgeman, 1979).

Improves participation, communication and performance as it makes each student accountable (Aaronson, 1971; Johnson, Johnson and Holubec, 1994; Chiu, 2000; Dillenbourg, 1999; Smith and MacGregor, 1992; Fuchs et al, 2002; and King, 1993).

Prepares students to work in a team, a skill required later in life to work towards a common goal (Maden, 2001). Not done in a kindergarten class before - no real explanation as to why
Full transcript