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Transcript of TRANSLATING NEOLOGISMS
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NEOLOGISMS are new words, word-combinations or fixed phrases that appear in the language due to the development of social life, culture, science and engineering.
Neologisms pass through three stages:
can be defined as “newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense” (described by Newmark, 1988). Unless they are opaque, obscure and possibly cacophonous.
Vocabulary is expanded and altered, and new terms enrich the language.
It is stated that each language acquires about 3000 new words every year (Newmark: 1988). These new acquires words are known as neologisms.
By Judith de Puente
Flooding the Internet with many copies of the same message, in an attempt to force the message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it.
Creation (new, proposition by a limited audience).
Trial (diffusion, not widely accepted).
Establishment (stabilized and identifiable, wide-spread approval).
Someone who's clueless. From the World Wide Web error message 404 Not Found, meaning that the requested document could not be located.
Translators have to find out the meaning of very new neologisms mainly based on the context (a sentence, paragraph, chapter or even the whole document) in which the neologism is used, the translator plays with language and produces word-games.
How to translate neologisms?
The translator should remember word-formation rules:
Suffixes, prefixes, and endings attached to words/word stems to form new words, for example: googling.
New meaning of existing words (i.e. footprint).
Loanwords (mostly professional and scientific terms borrowed from other languages).
Semi-abbreviations (words made up of parts of other words), abbreviations and acronyms, for example: FSU (the Former Soviet Union).
NEOLOGISMS may be the biggest problem for the non-literary and the professional translators (Newmark: 1988).
Trademarks that are genericized
Neologisms represent the evolving nature of the English language. Over time people create new words that express concepts or ideas that were previously expressed using other words or use words that may not have existed at all.
Neologisms can be completely new words, new meanings for existing words or new semes in existing words.
Ways of translating neologisms:
Transcription and transliteration.
The rewriting or conversion of the characters of a text from one writing system to another writing system is called transcription or transliteration.
Loan translation and calque.
Lexical calque: football = fútbol = balompié
Explanatory translation and descriptive translation.
Descriptive words are adjectives and adverbs.
Moreover, reading a lot can help them to find out the meaning of certain neologisms.
Selection of an appropriate analogue in a target language.
He is like a
This means he is steadfast and strong.
Life is like a box of chocolates.
This has many meanings and is a great analogy for life.
sushi, pizza, hamburger,
A transcription is the conversion of the characters of one language to the characters of another language in accordance with the pronunciation of the target language.
In contrast, in the transliteration, each character of the source language is assigned to a different unique character of the target language, so that an exact inversion is possible.
Descriptive or self-explanatory translation: It uses generic terms (not CBTs) to convey the meaning. It is appropriate in a wide variety of contexts where formal equivalence is considered insufficiently clear. In a text aimed at a specialized reader, it can be helpful to add the original SL term to avoid ambiguity.
Main strategies for the translation of terms which do not exist in the target language and/or which are perceived as neologisms by the interpreter:
Omission (the term is not translated. It may be translated at a later stage.)
Use of "approximate" or "provisional" equivalent
Explanation of concept (hypothesis: more usual in consecutive than simultaneous interpreting)
a) loan translation ("literal" translation of source language term)
b) direct loans / transfer (source language term is used as is or with some modification to make it fit into the target language phonology/morphology
c) coining of new word (hypothesis: unusual in interpreting; more usual in written translation).
Newmark stresses that in non-literary texts, translators should not normally create neologisms.
For translating neologisms, Newmark recommends such procedures as: transference, naturalisation, TL neologism, TL derived word, recognised TL translation, functional term, descriptive term, literal translation, translation procedure combinations, through-translation, and internationalism [Newmark 1988:150].
Ironically, the roots of neologism are rather old. This term used to describe any new word that has come into common usage is actually derived from a combination of two Ancient Greek words: neos ('young, new') and logos ('word'). The term itself became a neologism when English adopted it from French (néologisme) in 1735.
Old words with new senses
It is a creation of new meaning of existing words. For example:
· the previous meaning: a women who has guests
· the latest meaning: sex-worker
· the previous meaning: the mark made by a person’s or animal’s foot.
· the latest meaning: an impact on our planet