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Gilded Age Graphic Organizer
Transcript of Gilded Age Graphic Organizer
Scottish Economist during 18th century
This book described the process of how nations builds growth.
Published after Industrial Revolution
"To prohibit a great people... from employing their stock and industry in the way that they judge most advantageous to themselves, is a manifest violation of the most sacred rights of mankind." Forms of Business Organizations Monopoly -
The exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
Companies were earning more profits by taking over their competition.
Standard Oil - took over their competitors to put all oil business in their hands (horizontal integration)
Andrew Carnegie - made a monopoly of steel through vertical integration (company controlled distribution, furnaces, transportation and mines) Pool -
An agreement to divide the business in a given area and share the profits.
This often slashed railroad rates
Made it more expensive for the public
Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 - prohibited rebate and pools and required railroads to publish their rates openly. (didn't do much)
Also forbade unfair discriination against shippers and outlawed charging more for short hauls than long hauls. Trusts -
Generally used to describe any large-scale business combination.
Started with Standard Oil Company
Stockholders in various smaller oil companies assigned their stock to the board of directions of SOC.
Sugar trust, tobacco trust, leather trust, and harvester trust.
Anti-trust Act - Holding Company -
Large partnerships, formed by competing companies in order to strengthen their control over the market without violating anti-monopoly laws. Entrepreneurs Andrew Carnegie -
Irish immigrant from very poor family.
entered steel business in Pittsburgh
Not a monopolist
Produced Bessemer steel
Mastered vertical integration John D. Rockefeller -
Dominated oil industry
Came from wealthy backgrounds
Organized Standard Oil Company
Controlled 95% of all oil refineries in America.
Gospel of wealth
Horizontal integration J. Pierpont Morgan -
Financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks.
Morgan bought out Carnegie for over $400 million.
Launched the United States Steel Corporation.
First billion dollar corporation Vertical and Horizontal
Integration Vertical -
Controlling all aspects of the
Carnegie mastered this
Involved controlling one aspect of the production process
Rockefeller used it and controlled 90% of steel production Panics (1893) (1907) 1893 -
Collapse of railroad overbuilding and poor railroad financing - led to failed banks
Worse depression so far in American history
Called for regulated the corporations, taxing incomes, and protecting workers.
Paved the way for long-overdue fiscal reforms
Hardpressed banks were unable to incease the volume of money in circulation
Rich weren't willing to lend money to less successful competitors.
Aldrich-Vreeland Act - authorized national banks to issue emergency currency back by various kinds of collateral. Philanthropy Gospel of wealth - those who are wealthy have the duty to give back
Carnegie gave around $350 million to public works, including colleges and public libraries
Rockefeller gave millions to public works too.
The wealth was in the hands of only a few, but they were quite generous Jay Gould -
Got rich by buying railroads and stocks
Drove up stock prices by making false claims about profits Housing (tenements, slums, etc.)
Immigrants were jam-packed into city tenements.
Dumbbell tenements in slums - not much light or ventilation
Flophouses - half-starved and unemployed slept for a few cents
Health (disease, sanitation, etc.)
Impure water, uncollected garbage, unwashed bodies, and animal poop all over cities.
Working Conditions (child labor, etc.)
Lots of new immigrants resulted in lower wages.
Laissez-faire didn't regulate conditions of enterprises.
Lots of strikers from working class
Children were cheaper - dangerous work Positive Effects of Urbanization New technologies
Cities began to grow vertically
Inventions: Skyscrapers (vertical), elevators (vertical), street lighting, water and sewage systems.
Bessemer in America
When the wealthy people moved out of the city, they made a nice green belt that is still around today
Philanthropists paid for public works (museums, theaters, libraries, schools)
Lots of parks were put up Philosophies Puritan Work Ethic
The Puritans who first came to America had the belief that hard work would help them get to Heaven.
They worked their hardest at everything they did in order to please God.
The idea that the strongest and most fit should survive in society, and the weakest should be allowed to die.
Shouldn't pay taxes for the poor's benefit.
"We earned our money, let us keep it"
Gospel of Wealth & Social Gospel
It is the poor people's fault for not being rich.
The govt. declared a corporation a legal person - it can't be deprived of it's property without "due process of law"
The wealthy are blessed by God, and should honor him by giving back to the less fortunate. Periods of Immigration Reaction Against Immigration Theories of Immigration Homestead Act (1862) -
Granted the head of families 160 acres of surveyed land for a minimum fee
They would "advance" the land for 5 years, then keep it if they did.
This greatly accelerated western expansion
Farmers were taxed on land though
Morrill Act (1862, 1890) -
Provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education.
Most became state universities
Hatch Act of 1887 advanced this by providing federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations.
Reservation System -
Christian reformers sometimes withheld food to force the Indians to give up their tribal religion and assimilate to white society.
Sun Dance was outlawed
Reservations big in Oklahoma
Plains wars -
Easterners wanted to expand to the West.
Wanted Indians to assimmilate to the ways of white people.
Rifles were used
Battle of Little Bighorn = Indian win
Americans killed Indians, destroyed their food and killed bison.
Massacre at Wounded Knee = White win Colonial Immigration:
1700-1800 - mostly Africans and British Isle immigrants
"Old" immigration -
Some democracy experience
Many turned out wealthy
Settled in rural areas
"New" immigration -
US basically let all people come over as long as they weren't insane or criminals.
Most came from Southern Europe - Jews, Catholics, Orthodox
Most entered poor working class
Settled in city slums
Didn't know much about democracy, and weren't WASPs Nativism -
First came about with Germans and Irish in 1840s and 50s.
New immigrants came to escape poverty of Europe.
Didn't like the immigrants high birthrate - thought it would destroy Anglo-Saxons.
Immigrants were seen as "less-superior"
They worked for tiny wages
Know-Nothing Party -
Political party which was very nationalistic.
Formed the American Protective Association
Over a million members
Voted against Roman Catholic candidates for office
Sponsored the publication of lustful fantasies about runaway nuns.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Yellow Peril")
Banned nearly all Chinese from America for six decades.
Many were unsuccessful who came
"Melting-Pot" Theory -
Started in 1780s
This is the theory that the very racially heterogeneous country of America brings all of its people into a homogeneous society.
The theory that all immigrants should assimilate
This was easier with "old" immigrants
Assimilation and Americanization -
Nativists wanted complete assimilation of immigrants and Indians.
"White man's burden"
"Salad-Bowl" Theory (Pluralism) -
Different than melting pot theory
Says that there are many ingredients (cultural and racial backgrounds), but they don't all assimilate into one society.
More politically correct than melting pot b/c it doesn't make immigrants feel like they'll lose their identity. Era of Good Stealings Rutherford B. Hayes Whiskey Ring Credit Mobilier Scandal Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall American politician in New York
Used bribery to milk New York $200 million.
Immigrants were given things like clothes, food, and shelter in replacement for their votes.
New York - men used graft to grow rich
Disliked by outsiders
Thomas Nast cartoons -
Attacked Bos Tweed in a series of cartoons in Harper's Weekly.
Says Tweed is a powerful giant above the law. Bribes and Kick Backs African Americans Farmers Native Americans Urban Middle Class Women -
Millions discovered new economic and social opportunities.
Women provided cheaper labor than men. They usually did simple jobs such as working as an operator or on a typewriter. Some worked in clothing factories.
Others continued to work at home. Many provided basic necessities such as clothing at home since their families couldn't afford it.
"Gibson Girl" -
A magazine image of an independent and athletic "new woman" created in the 1890s
Charles Dana Gibson
Became the ideal type of woman.
Middle Class women -
Many delayed marriage and had smaller families.
They worked the same jobs, but earned less than men.
Started the divorce revolution.
More birth control used
Harriet Beecher Stowe = feminist
Booker T. Washington and Beliefs -
44% of nonwhites were illiterate
Was an ex-slave
Was an "accommodationist" because he stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy.
Avoided the issue of social equality
Wanted economic and educational equality.
W.E. B Du Bois and Beliefs -
Fought for racial justice in the United States
Eventually renounced his American citizenship at age of 93 and went to the independent African state of Ghana.
Plessy v. Ferguson (African-Americans) -
Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under "equal protection" clause of the 14th amendment.
Weren't equal at all though
Impact of new tech and farming methods -
John Deere Tractor, McCormick Reaper
These inventions made farming easier, but more expensive to own this equipment
Led towards larger farms.
Causes of Farmer's debt -
Unfair taxation - only property taxes
Falling fam prices due to overproduction
High transportation costs
Land & equipment were expensive
Grange movement -
Organized in 1867. Led by Oliver Kelley.
Wanted to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational and fraternal activities.
Tried getting into politics
Populists (Farmer's Alliance) platform -
Wanted free unlimited coinage of silver (Bryan)
Gradual income tax
Nationalize the railroad and telegraph
Wanted new markets for imperialism.
1896 Election -
William McKinley - Republican presidential nominee.
Came from the army.
Hanna wanted him president
prime function of govt. should be to aid business
McKinley was "bought" by rich Easterners.
William Jennings Bryan - Cross of Gold
Delivered by Byran in 1896.
Next day nominated him as presidential nominee.
Said silver is better Plains Indians -
Followed herds of buffalo others were semi-sedentary.
Big tribes = Cheyenne, Pawnee, Wichita, Sioux.
Loss of Buffalo impact -
Indians lost their main source of food and clothing.
Provided food; fueld; clothing, lariats, and harnesses.
Building of the railroad killed buffalo.
Sand Creek Massacre -
1864 - Colonel Chvington's militia massacrd in cold blood some 400 Indians who apparently thought they had been promised immunity.
Battle of Little Bighorn -
Colonel Custer set out to suppress the Indians and to return them to the reservation.
2,500 well-armed Indians completely wiped out the Americans.
Wounded Knee -
Government wanted to get rid of the "Ghost Dance."
Army bloodily stamped it out in 1890 at the battle.
200 Indian men, women, and children were killed
29 dead invading soldiers
Muckrakers (investigative journalism) -
Jacob Riss - Wrote "How the Other Half Lives" - talked about slums
Thomas Nast - cartoonist who often depicted corruption and Boss Tweed
Lincoln Steffans - Wrote "Shame of the Cities" - which is about corruption
Ida M Tarbell - Exposed the wrongdoings of Standard Oil Company
Upton Sinclair - Wrote "the Jungle" - which talks about horrible meat packing
Progressives - platform -
Wanted to purify the government
Tried to undercut political machines and bosses.
direct elections of Senators
Initiatives, referendums, and recalls
Wanted to Americanize the immigrants
Wanted a progressive income tax
Laws against child labor Dawes Act (1887) -
Tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians.
Took millions of acres away from Indians.
Stayed for 50 years
Replaced by Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 which tried doing the opposite of what they'd just done.
Gentleman's Agreement -
Tokyo agreed to stop the flow of laborers to the American mainland by withholding passports.
National Origins Act (1924, 1929)
1924 (Johnson-Reed Act)
Limited immigration to 2% of the immigrants from each country that had already come.
Didn't allow any Japanese
Marked the end of a "let everyone in" era
1929 - Went from 2% to 150,000 people from each country. Post Civil War
Presidents recalled the recent hardships of the Civil War.
Used by Republicans to bring public attention to Reconstruction issues.
Used in elections of 1868, 1872, and 1876.
Attracted veterans' votes Jim Fisk and Jay Gould developed a plot to raise the price of gold market in 1869.
In order to lower the high price of gold, the Treasury had to sell gold from its reserves.
Boss Tweed - politician of New York
Bribery, graft and fraudulent elections
Finally arrested Republican candidate in 1876 election.
Tilden won popular vote, but needed one more electoral vote to win.
Because of the Electoral Count Act, Republicans won.
Democrats agreed Hayes could take office only if he withdrew troops from SC and LO.
He cut wages of railroad workers after panic of 1873. Began in St. Louis in 1874-1875
Robbed the Treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues.
President Grant said no man involved could escape, but he didn't punish his own private secretary Union Pacific Railroad in 1872
The company formed the Credit Mobilier construction company, then hired themselves to build the railroad lines at inflated prices.
Government officials were paid to be silent about it, some even were given stocks of the company. Immigrants were bribed to vote for a certain political party in return for basic goods: housing, food, clothing.
Kickback: A payback of a sum received from increased fees because of a confidential agreement. Unions -
Impact of new machines -
Typewriter - more jobs for women
Traffic lights invented
Barbed wire - big changes in West
Telephone - more jobs for women
Strike Breakers or scabs -
Middle class had lots of strikes
Workers couldn't combine into unions to raise wages.
Lock outs, Yellow-dog Contracts, Black Lists
People were sometimes locked in buildings so they wouldn't stop working
YDC - The employee agrees as part of their conditions for employment not to be a member of a labor union.
BL - list of union supporters drawn up by employers for the purpose of denying jobs to union workers
Knights of Labor -
Began as a secret society of tailors
1886 had 700,000 members
wanted abolishon of child labor, equal pay for equal work, and income tax.
Haymarket Square Bombing -
Labor disorders had broken out, and in 1886, the Chicago police advaned on a meeting called to protest alleged brutalities by the authorities.
A bomb went off.
Hurt the Knights of Labor
Coxey's Army -
Coxey was a wealthy Ohio quarry owner.
Went to Washington with some supporters
Demanded the govt. relieve unemployment
Pullman Strike -
1894 - Eugene Debs helped organize the American Railway Union of 150,000 members.
Pullman Palace Car Company had cut wages.
They striked, but didn't do much
American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers -
Gompers was a diehard capitalist.
They wanted higher wages and better working conditions.
Every member was a skilled worker
Chief Joseph and Nez Perc'e
-Chief J was head of Nez Perc'e
US tried herded them into a reservation.
Joseph finally surrendered after a 1,700 mile hke towards Canada.
They were sent to a reservation in Nebraska where 40% died.
Helen Hunt "A Century of Dishonor" -
Non-fiction book that talks about the experiences of Native Americans in the US.
Wanted to change govt. policies toward Indians.
Dawes Act, Assimilation, Indian Boarding Schools -
DS - Emphasized severalty, wanted Indians to be individuals, not members of a tribe.
The head of the family was given a large plot of land.
Fredrick Jackson Turner - Frontier Thesis -
Western Frontier was the American attitude of the time. We always had it there if we needed something new.
Conquering the frontier without safety nets made us who we are today Thank you Mr. Kay!