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Transcript of GREEK ALPHABET
• Modern Greek pronunciation
• Reconstructed New Testament Greek pronunciation
• Fraternity, Physics, and Calculus pronunciation
Development of Modern Demotic Greek
ox-turning was common, until in the classical period the left-to-right writing direction became the norm. Individual letter shapes were mirrored depending on the writing direction of the current line.
Greek was originally written predominantly from right to left, just like Phoenician, but scribes could freely alternate between directions.
Crete managed to resist Turkish control until 1669. The poetry produced there in the local dialect near the end of this period would contribute significantly to the development of modern demotic literature as would the folk songs produced on the mainland.
When Greece finally won its freedom in 1830 a new kingdom was formed with Athens and the Peloponnese at its core.
The dialects spoken in these regions became the basis for the standard spoken language of today's Greek society.
A very early Greek (around 650 BC) inscription with the text running from left to right then doubling back to run from right to left. This form of writing, resembling the path of the ox-drawn plough across a field, is known as boustrophedon (ox-turning)
The Acrophonic system was replaced by an alphabetic system.
Three obsolete letters,
, were used in addition to the standard Greek letters.
A apostrophe-like numeral sign was used to indicate that letters were being used as numerals.
Count with Greek numbers
The Ancient Greeks had two numeric systems:
Attic system used the letters iota, delta, gamma, eta, nu and mu in various combinations.
These letters represented the first letters of the number names, with the exception of iota. ex:
(gente) for 5, which became (pente)
(Deka) for 10 (Hektaton) for 100
(Khilioi) for 1,000 and (Myrion) for 10,000
This system was used until the first century BC.
Modern use of Greek letters for numbers
The letters in Greek system were specific numbers.
In fact, mathematicians use certain Greek letters to mean specific constants, but these are quite different values than the ones above.
or pi is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.
is the golden ratio.
Earliest Records :
Inscribed on baked mud tablets, written in a syllabic script known as Linear B
their decipherment has not revealed any great works of early literature; most of the tablets are inventories of property or deal with agricultural production and produce.
they represent the earliest records of any European language.
Linear B was essentially a syllabic script with each symbol representing a consonant-vowel combination
The ancient Greeks had a number system like the Romans.
In the 4th century BC, the number system was started.
Instead of counting I, II, III, they had different symbols for 1,2,3 up to 9 but the same symbols was not used to represent numbers greater than 9.
They had a new set of symbols for 10, 20, 30, and another set for 100, 200, 300.
* This has the disadvantage, like so many of the ancient counting systems, that you eventually ran out of symbols!
official language of Greece and Cyprus and one of the 23 official languages of the European Union.
spoken by at least 13 million people today
1) The Greek language defined Western world, and Christianity;
(EG: the canon of ancient Greek literature the epic poems
2) Greek is the foundational texts of Western philosophy,
the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle,( philosopher )
the New Testament of the Christian Bible was written in Koiné Greek.
3) Greek was a lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and beyond during classical antiquity, and become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire.
Like Latin and other alphabetic scripts, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter, without a distinction between uppercase and lowercase.
with carefully drawn, rounded block letters of about equal size,
and cursive writing, used for everyday purposes.
When the Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet, they took over not only the letter shapes and sound values, but also the names by which the sequence of the alphabet could be recited and memorized.
Ancient handwriting developed two distinct styles:
7 Dipthongs in Greek:
The Greek alphabet was the model for various others:
•The Latin alphabet,adopted from an archaic form of the Greek alphabet brought to Italy by Greek colonists in the late 8th century BC, via Etruscan
•The Gothic alphabet, devised in the 4th century AD to write the Gothic language,
•The Glagolitic alphabet, devised in the 9th century AD for writing Old Church Slavonic
•The Cyrillic script, which replaced the Glagolitic alphabet shortly afterwards
There are 24 letters in the Greek alphabet, ordered from alpha to omega.
The phonology, morphology, syntax, and vocabulary of the language show both conservative and innovative tendencies across the entire attestation of the language from the ancient to the modern period.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC. It is still used today as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.
historical sibilant letters,
the correspondence between Phoenician and Ancient Greek is less clear, with apparent mismatches both in letter names and sound values.
In Phoenician, each letter name was a word that began with the sound represented by that letter.
When the letters were adopted by the Greeks, most of the Phoenician names were maintained or modified slightly to fit Greek phonology.
the older forms of the names in Ancient Greek were spelled with -εῖ, indicating an original pronunciation with -ē. In Modern Greek these names are spelled with -ι.
originally called simply by their sound values as long vowels: ē, ō, ū, and c.
Their modern names contain adjectival qualifiers, to distinguish between letters that had become confusable.
Greek also introduced three new consonant letters for its aspirated plosive sounds and consonant clusters: Φ (phi) for /pʰ/, Χ (chi) for /kʰ/ and Ψ (psi) for /ps/.