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The English School Theory of IR (Classical: Hedley Bull and

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cynthia sipahutar

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Transcript of The English School Theory of IR (Classical: Hedley Bull and

Martin Wight (1991) “The Middle Way” taught that three classical theories fall into three basic categories:
Realist (Nicollo Machiavelli)



Rationalist (Hugo Grotius)



Revolutionist (Immanuel Kant)


The English School Theory of IR
(Classical: Hedley Bull and Martin Wight)
“as The Middle Path”
by
Cynthia Sondang Romauli Sipahutar
2011330082

Reference:

Realism:
Anarchy
Power politics
Conflict and warfare
Pessimism


Conclusion
None of these ideas is “true” and none is “false”
Each is incomplete, it only capture one aspect of IR
Each of itself is an inadequate theory
BUT, TOGETHER THEY PLAY AN INDESPENSABLE ROLE IN IR


Their Roles in World Politics
Realism : Controlling or disciplining factor
Revolutionist: Vitalizing or energizing factor
Rationalist: Civilizing or moderating factor

Imp
o
rtant N
o
tice

Category 3: Revolutionist

Category 2: Rationalist in Int’l Society

The Collaboration between the
“Three Musketeers”

Methodology:
Humanism
Interpretation
Historical, jurisprudential, philosophical


Basic Int’l Society Approach

Traditional Classical Approach
Human-focused
Interpretive
Normative
Historical-concrete



CONTENT

John Vincent (1986) gives emphasis on the two closely related values, Order and Justice into…

Order = State Sovereignty
Justice = Human Rights

State are supposed to respect each other’s independence; the value of state sovereignty and non-intervention

On the other hand, IR involves not only states but also human beings, who possess human rights

By
Cynthia Sondang Romauli Sipahutar
2011330082

The English School Theory of IR
(Classical: Hedley Bull and Martin Wight)
“as The Middle Path”

The Pioneers:
Hedley Bull (1969)
Martin Wight (1991)
A group of British inspired theorists
Major focus: INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY
Int’l society: a society of SOVEREIGN STATES


Introduction to English School

Int’l society strongly agree with classical realist in regards to the principal of SOVEREIGN STATES as the MAIN ACTOR in INT’L POLITICS
Element of anarchy, of power politics and of warfare
Concentrates on the actual (realistic) – rather than being naïve or wishful thinking (utopian)
Believes in HOBBESIAN state of nature and extremely deny WORLD GOVERNMENT

Pioneers: Niccolo Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes




Category 1: Realist concept in Int’l Society

Human organizations (society of states)




international activities in which humans engage




Believe that humans are reasonable, can recognize the right thing to do, and can learn from their mistakes and from others.

Pioneer: Hugo Grotius



Although live under anarchy, people can live together when they share no common government
Perfect world of mutual respect
Rationalism as the “middle road” of int’l politics between the pessimistic realist and the optimistic revolutionist
Thus, order is still under progress rather than already been achieved
Believe in humanity and “the moral unity” of human society beyond the state
A cosmopolitan rather than state-centric thinkers
A solidarists rather than pluralists
Their mission: Changing the world for the better (revolutionary social change)
Creating an idealistic world (tentative)

Optimistic about human nature
History is not merely a sequence, rather it has a purpose; human beings have destiny
Their destiny is to achieve fulfillment and freedom.

Pioneers: Immanuel Kant and John Locke




Revolutionary religion --- Christian, Jews, or Islam (soft revolution)
Revolutionary ideology --- Republican liberalism or Marxism-Leninism (hard revolution)

ideal world
Rationalism:
Society
Evolutionary change
Peaceful coexistence
Hope without illusions
Revolutionism:
Humanity
Revolutionary change
Anti-state
Utopianism
Case Study:
the major dilemma for Int’l Society: the interpretation of order and justice, which prior first?

WHAT IF...
a state massively violating the human rights of its own citizen, e.g. Al Assad in Syria?
Which one comes first?
Interference towards a sovereign state? Or does humanitarian intervention exist?
How should the two rights be balanced?
International Society presents Two Answers
Pluralist approach:

Stressing the importance of state sovereignty
Rights and duties in int’l society are conferred upon sovereign states
Individuals have only the rights given to them by their own state
The principles of respect for sovereignty and non-intervention always comes first
Solidarist approach:
Stressing the importance of individuals as the ultimate members of int’l society
The existence of right and duty for the states to conduct intervention

Sorensen Georg and Jackson Robert, Introduction to International Relations Theories and Approaches, 3rd ed., 2007

Baylis John, Smith Steve and Owens Patricia, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford Press

http://fsu.valahia.ro/user/image/36.-maria-stanescu.pdf

http://web.wm.edu/so/monitor/issues/16-SE/3-jordan.pdf


According to Int’l Society approach:
The above problems can only be studied normatively (philosophically, historically, and legally).
But not scientifically, because they are essentially human issues.
Every answer will be affected by the situation and will be essentially historical in character

Criticisms towards Int’l Society

Critics of Realism:
Weak evidence of norms
Interests dominate
Critics of Liberalism:
Ignores domestic society
Ignores democracy
Ignores progress
Critics of IPE (Int’l Political Economy):
Ignores economy
Ignores Third World
Int'l society approach as the middle way in classical IR theories; between classical realism and classical liberalism
A traditionalist rather than behaviouralist
Main actor in IR are Sovereign States
A dialogue between realism, rationalism and revolutionism
Main point of int'l society: promotion & preservation of int'l order
For Int’l Society IR is typically a study of WAR and PEACE
Either states declare WAR or making and rejecting or accepting PEACE offers

States ARE NOT THINGS: they do not act on their own
Int’l society views IR as a special branch of human relations that occur in historical time and involve rules (norms and values)
Basic values
Order
Justice
State sovereignty
Human rights
Core Concepts
Human relations
States
Anarchical society
State system
Society of states
Hedley Bull in “the Anarchical Society”:
Sharp distinction between INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM and INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY

Int’l system (realist concept):
Sufficient contact  Sufficient impact  Behavior of each a necessary element to calculate

Int’l society or society of states (liberalist concept):
Groups of states conscious common interests and common values  Form a bounding society with a set of rules and engagement  Share in the working of common institution

TWO MOST FUNDAMENTAL VALUES
international ORDER
international JUSTICE
Bull: the main point in anarchic society, is promotion and preservation of int'l order (1995: 16-19)
Three kinds of order in world politics:
1. order in social life
2. int'l order
3. WORLD ORDER
three levels of justice
human justice
interstate justice
world justice
Introduction to English School
The Collaboration of the “Three Musketeers”
Case Study
Criticisms towards ES
Conclusion




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