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Cold War

AP Euro

Kristin Palomares

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Cold War

Cold War
Superpowers Face Off
Pursuit of Opposing Goals
Yalta Conference
Big Three
Divided up Germany into occupation zones
Germany reparations to the U.S.S.R.
U.S.S.R. promised free elections and declared war against Japan
United Nations
International protection organization
Based in NY
48 countries
General Assembly: voted on issues
Security Council: 11 member body that investigated and settled disputes
5 permanent members: GB, China, France, US, USSR
Veto power
Aftermath of WWII
Solutions & Goals
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Encourage democracy and prevent communism
Gain access to raw materials
Rebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets for U.S. goods
Reunite Germany to stabilize to create security
Encourage communism & revolution
Gain access to raw materials
Create a buffer zone by controlling Eastern Europe
Keep Germany divided to create security
400,000 deaths
Cities & factories remained intact
50X as many deaths
1 in 4 wounded or killed
Cities demolished
Iron Curtain
How to protect the USSR?
No natural border
17th Century: Poles captured Kremlin
18th Century: Swedes attacked
19th Century: Napoleon overran Moscow & WWI/WWII
History of Problems
"From the Stettin in the Baltic to the Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent"
- Churchill
Establishment of communist governments
Elimination of free elections in Eastern European nations
How to protect the U.S.?
A policy directed at blocking Soviet influence & stopping the expansion ofcommunism
Truman Doctrine
Sparked by Turkey & Greece
Provided support for any nation rejecting communism
$400 Million in aid
Marshall Plan
Provided food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe
Sparked by communist seizure of Czechoslovakia
$12.5 billion
Berlin Airlift
France, GB, US withdrew forces allow zones to unite
USSR responded by holding West Berlin Hostage
Cut-off highway, water, & rail traffic
US & GB flew food and supplies into West Berlin
11 months later the USSR admitted defeat
Superpowers Form Alliances
Defensive military alliance of democratic/capitalistic countries
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Alliance of communist countries
Berlin Wall
East Germans built a wall to separate East & West Berlin
Symbolized a divided world
The Cold War In The Skies
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
1st unmanned satellite
CIA secret high-altitude spy planes
U-2 Incident
Pilot Gary Powers was captured after being shot down during a U-2 mission
Space Race
6 min
6 min
The Man Behind The Wall
Streamlined the political & economic system
The Law on State Enterprise decentralized state & economic planning
The Law on Cooperatives revived forms of private enterprise
Permitted foreign trade & investment
Increased political transparency
Relaxed censorship laws to encourage media scrutiny of party officials
Encouraged investigative journalism & independent media
Increased civic participation through multi-candidate elections
Eventually expanded to multi-party elections
The Sinatra Doctrine
U.S.S.R. no longer enforced the Brezhnev Doctrine
Eastern European states were allowed to explore their own reforms
"I did it my way"
The Iron Curtain Falls
Fall of the Berlin Wall
4 min
Born on a collective farm
Joined the communist party while attending Moscow State University
Rose from local party official to General Secretary in only 15 years
Recognized need to reform communism
Korean War
Standoff At The 38th Parallel
The Fighting Continues
Aftermath of the War
Taboo Review
After the U.S. withdrew their troops, the Soviets gave North Korea military supplies
North Korea invaded the south
Containment was challenged & Truman began to help the South
South Korea asked the UN for help
Intervention required Security Council approval
Soviets were absent for vote because they were protesting the admission of Nationalist China, rather than Communist China, into the UN
Douglas MacArthur
Led UN forces
UN troops pushed North Koreans back across the 38th parallel up to the Yalu River
China felt threatened by the UN forces that were mostly from the U.S.
China sent 300,000 troops into North Korea then past the 38th parallel to Seoul
agreement to stop fighting
Korea divided at the 38th parallel
DMZ zone established
North Korea
Communist dictator Kim Il Sung established collective farms, developed heavy industry, & built up the military
South Korea
Prospered due to U.S. aid & foreign trade
established democracy
4 million soldiers & civilians died
38th Parallel
Douglas MacArthur
The Road to War
Fighting Begins
Vietnam: A Divided Country
U.S. Troops Enter the Fight
The U.S. Withdraws
Taboo Review
France controlled Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, & Vietnam)
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese nationalist
Turned to the Communists for help
Led the Indochinese Communist party to revolt against the French
France arrested Ho Chi Minh...
Sentenced him to death...
He fled into exile
Ho Chi Minh returned & found that Japan had seized control of the area
Along with other nationalists, he founded the Vietminh Independence League
WWII ends & Japan loses colonies
Ho Chi Minh thinks Vietnam will gain independence
Instead, France is awarded the territory
Vietnamese Vs. French
Nationalists & Communists
Countryside support
Hit & run tactics
Controlled cities
Dien Bien Phu: Lost battle made French citizens question worth of colonial possession & military presence
Supported French
After Dien Bien Phu, President Eisenhower fears domino theory will occur
Geneva International Peace Conference
Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel
North: Ho Chi Minh's communists ruled
South: U.S. & France set up a puppet government under the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem
Diem ruled as a dictator
communist guerrillas
established an opposition government
took control of the countryside
South Vietnamese assassinated Diem
weren't popular leaders
Vietcong, backed by North Vietnam, attempted to take over entire country
August 1964
Told congress that North Vietnamese patrol boats had attacked two U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin
Congress allowed president to send troops
185,000 U.S. soldiers were in combat
More than half a million U.S. soldiers were in combat
U.S. soldiers were fighting a guerrilla war in an unfamiliar terrain
South Vietnam
Last troops left
North Vietnam overran South Vietnam
war became unpopular in U.S.
Vietnamization: allowed U.S. troops to gradually pull out while the South Vietnamese increased their combat role
More than 1.5 million Vietnamese & 58,000 Americans lost their lives
Gulf of Tonkin
Ngo Dinh Diem
Geneva Conference
17th Parallel
Domino Theory
Vietminh Independence League
Ho Chi Minh
Operation Rolling Thunder
Tet Offensive
Kent State University
Paris Peace Accords
The Cold War Divides the World
After WWII, the world's nations were grouped politically into one of the following...
First World
Second World
Third World
industrialized capitalist nations
U.S. & allies
communist nations
Soviet Union
developing nations
newly independent
Latin America, Asia, & Africa
Multinational Alliances
Surrogate Wars
Foreign Aid
Major Strategies of the Cold War
Giving financial aid to other nations
Ex: Radio Free Europe broadcast radio programs about the rest of the world into Eastern Europe
Going to the edge of war to make the other side back down
Ex: NATO & Warsaw Pact
Fighting indirectly
Substitute conflicts
4 min
Who cares about the Cuban Missile Crisis?
5 descriptive words
Be Kennedy
Be Khrushev
Be Castro
5 min
5 min
5 min
What factors do you believe contributed to the crisis?
What factors contributed to ending the crisis without a war?
What role did leadership play?
What other groups or interests did these leaders have to consider?
Are there situations in the world today where factors that could lead to a nuclear crisis exist?
How can countries minimize risk of nuclear war?
Think It Through
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cold War Thaws
Satellite Countries
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, & East Germany
Nikita Khrushchev
Started destalinization
purged the country of Stalin's memory
didn't occur in satellite nations
Sputnik I launched
Hungarian Revolt
October 1956
Hungarian army + protesters overthrew the soviet-controlled government
Imre Nagy
Hungarian Communist leader
Formed a new government
Promised free elections & demanded Soviet troops leave
Soviet tanks moved in, executed Nagy, & instated a pro-Soviet government
Czechoslovakian Revolt
Leonid Brezhnev
Leader after Khruschcev
Cracked down on public dissent
Economy experienced decline & consumer shortages
Brezhnev Doctrine declared Soviet intentions to defend the Communist bloc by military force
Prague Spring
Lead by Czech communist leader Alexander Dubcek
loosened control on censorship
offered socialism with a "human face"
Warsaw Pact
suppressed movement
Brezhnev Doctrine enforced
A policy of lessening of Cold War tensions
Richard Nixon
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks I
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
Limited # of ICBMs each country country could have
Helsinki Accords
34 European & American signatories
Set out basic human rights provisions
Inspired resistance movements
Satellite Countries
Imre Hagy
Hungarian Revolt
Brezhnev Doctrine
Prague Spring
Alexander Dubcek
Helsinki Accords
Taboo Review
The Sinatra Doctrine
Berlin Wall Falls
Yalta Conference
United Nations
Warsaw Pact
Berlin Wall
U-2 Incident
Iron Curtain
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
Berlin Airlift
Taboo Review
Boris Yeltsin
1st President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Boris becomes popular
Showing opposition to the August 1991 coup against Gorbachev
Drama in the Duma
Conservative Prime Minister
Dissolved Duma
Duma moved for impeachment
Yeltsin orders troops to storm Parliament
1993 Constitution
modeled after Western European governments
President = head of state = diplomacy & military
Prime Minister = head of government = legislative leader
Few checks on presidents power
12 min
13 min
Full transcript