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Period 4 - 1820-1848

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Patrick Keating

on 23 October 2015

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Transcript of Period 4 - 1820-1848

Part IV:
Forging the National Economy
Part V: The Ferment of Reform and Culture

Forging the National Economy
A. Moving West and Immigration
1. The Westward Movement
Citizens quickly moving west - hard with disease, loneliness
Frontier people - individualistic, superstitious

Movement molded the environment
Tobacco overuse exhausted land forcing settlers to move on
Trapped beavers, sea otters, and bison for fur to ship back east
Led to an appreciation of the American wilderness
Artist George Catlin pushed for national parks (Yellowstone 1872)

Population continued to double every 5 years
1860 - 13 states now 33 states; population now 4th in the world
Urban growth
(1790) - NY and Philly >20,000
1860 - 43 cities > 20,000
Poor sanitation
High birthrate accounted for population growth
1850s -- millions came in from Ireland, Germany
Why? - surplus population in Europe
Appeal - land, freedom from church, no aristocracy, 3 meat meals a day
Transoceanic steamships - travel time now 12 days
4. The Emerald Isle Moves West
Irish potato famine (mid-1840s) led to death of 2 million and many fled to US
"Black 40s" - came mainly to Boston, New York
Illiterate, discriminated against, received lowest-paying jobs (railroads)
Hated by Protestants
Ancient Order of Hibernians established to aid Irish
Gradual property ownership; children earned education
Attracted to politics, police officers
3. March of the Millions
2. Changing the Western Landscape
5. The German Forty-Eighters
1 million Germans immigrate from 1830-1860
Why? - crop failures, revolution/war
Had more money than Irish - bought land in West (esp. WI)
Contributed to culture and isolationism
Urged public education and freedom (did not like slavery)
Faced resent - clung to tradition, speaking German, and brought beer to US
6. Flare-ups of Antiforeignism
Nativists - older Americans who were prejudiced against newcomers
Feared that Catholicism challenged Protestantism
Established Order of Star-Spangled Banner (Know-Nothings)
"Know Nothings"
Met in secrecy
Fought for restrictions on immigration, naturalization, and deportation
Wrote fiction books about corruption of churches
As time went on, immigrants less disliked - crucial to economic expansion and more jobs becoming available
Made America more pluralistic
B. A National Economy
1. Creeping Mechanization
Industrial Revolution spreads to US
Land cheap, money/raw materials plentiful
Britain lacked consumers for factory-scale manufacturing
Brits kept textile industry secrets (forbade travel of craftsmen and export of machines)
US remained very rural and was mostly a farming nation
2. Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine
Samuel Slater -- "Father of the Factory System"
Learned of textile machinery when working in a British factory
Escaped to US
Built first cotton thread spinner in Pawtucket, RI (1791)
Eli Whitney built a cotton gin (50x more effective than separating by hand)
Cotton economics were not profitable and saved the South
South flourished and expanded the cotton kingdom
Northern factories manufactured textiles
3. Marvels in Manufacturing
Embargo Act of the War of 1812 helped home manufacturing
After war -- British poured in a surplus of cheap goods - caused many American factories to close
Passed Tariff of 1816 to protect economy
Eli Whitney introduced machine-made
inter-changeable parts
Base of the assembly line - flourished in north
Cotton gin - flourished in the South
Elias Howe and Issac Singer (1846) made the sewing machine (foundation of clothing industry)
Decade of 1860: 28,000 patents; 1800: 306
Limited liability
in a corporation (can't lose more than invested) stimulated the economy
Laws of free incorporation - no need to apply for a charter from a legislature to start a corporation
Samuel Morse - telegraph
4. Workers and "Wage Slaves"
Factory system = impersonal relations
Benefit went to factory owner - hours long, wages low, conditions unsafe/unhealthy, no unions existed
50% of labor force children
Adult working conditions improved in 1820-1830s
Mass vote given to workers
10 hour day, higher wages, better conditions, public education, ban on imprisonment for debt
Many went on strike - lost because owners imported workers
5. Women and the Economy
Lowell Mill Girls - group of women who protested working conditions in Massachusetts
Opportunities were rare - women worked mainly in nursing, domestic service, teaching
Worked before marriage - after marriage became housewives/mothers
Marriages started to become more about LOVE
Families grew smaller (average - 6); fertility rate dropped sharply
Child centered families emerged - less children and discipline
Home changed from a place of labor to a place of refuge
Women in charge of family
6. Farmers
up up up
Trans-Allegheny Region (IN-IL-OH) became the nation's 'breadbasket' -- corn, wheat, hogs
John Deere - invented steel plow
Cyrus McCormick - mechanical mower-reaper to harvest grain
Significance -- led to large scale production and growth of cash crops
Significance -- North produced more FOOD than the south (cotton); products flowed from the North to the South
7. Highways and Steamboats
Improvements needed for raw material transport
Lancaster Turnpike -- road from Philadelphia to Lancaster PA - brought economic expansion westward
Cumberland Road (National Road)
Stretched from MD to IL
Constructed with state and federal money
Robert Fulton - invented the first steamboat; common by the 1830s
Caused increase in trade - no concern for weather and water current
Contributed to the development of Southern and Western economies
C. The Changing Economy
1. Clinton's Big Ditch
The Erie Canal - between Lake Erie and the Hudson River
Shortened the expense and time of transportation (1/20)
Cities grew along the canal
Price of food reduced
Farmers were unable to compete - moved west
2. The Iron Horse
1st railroad introduced in 1828; 1860 - 30,000 miles laid in the US (3/4 in North)
Opposed by some at first due to fear of losing money from Erie Canal traffic
Constructed poorly at first
3. Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders
Foreign Exports
South - cotton accounted for 50% of exports
North - wheat became important commodity in trade with England
Exporting > Importing -- substantial debt developing
Cyrus Field (1858) - laid a telegraph cable between the US & Europe - provided instant communication with Europe
Golden age of merchant marine 1840s-50s
Clipper ships - dominated the seas for a brief time: fast, sleek, long
Tea trade with British grew
Americans brief dominance with clipper ships crushed by British iron steam ships
Pony Express - provided speedy communication popped up from MO to CA
2,000 miles in ten days
Short-lived; replaced by telegraph
4. Transport Web Binds the Union
More trade east to west due to canals
NY became the 'queen port' due to Erie Canal (replaced New Orleans)
Principle of divided labor emerged; each region specialized in economic activity
South - cotton to NE; West - grain and livestock for East and Europe
North/East - machines, textiles for South and West
South thought the MS River linked them to other states and the world - didn't care for paying for national INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS
Home no longer the center of economics -- now served as a refuge from work
5. The Market Revolution
The Business of America is Business
Businesses growing up quickly
Era of self-supported farm changing
More modern, specialty driven economy
Widened gap between rich and poor
Cities saw the greatest extremes
Unskilled workers were drifters from town to town looking for jobs (1/2 of industrial population)
Social mobility existed, rags-to-riches rare
Standard of living rose as wages rose
Part II: The Ferment of Reform and Culture
A. Changing Religion in the United States
1. Reviving Religion
Church attendance regular in 1850 (75% of pop. attended)
Reliance on Deism
Rejected original sin of man
Believed in a supreme being
Some rejected divinity of Christ
Unitarian faith begins (New England)
Believed God existed in only 1 person (not trinity)
Believed in free will; salvation through good works
God as loving father
Appealed to intellectuals with rationalism and optimism
2nd Great Awakening
Wave of spiritual fervor
Resulted in prison/church reform, temperance movement, women's rights movement, abolition of slavery in 1830s
Spread to the masses through 'camp meetings'
Methodists and Baptists
Stressed personal conversion
Democracy in church affairs
Peter Cartwright - best known of the circuit riders; traveling preachers
Charles Grandison Finney - led massive revivals
2. Denominational Diversity
Further fragmented faiths (many new emerging)
Widened lines between classes
Conservatives and educated - Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists
The 'less-learned' of South and West - Methodists, Baptists
Religion further split with the issue of slavery
Some believed in PERFECTIONISM - use of religion to create a JUST society
3. A Desert Union in Utah
Joseph Smith (1830) founds Church of Latter Day Saints
Criticized for polygamy, voting as a unit, 'theocratic rule'
Smith killed; succeeded by Brigham Young - led Mormons to Utah
Grew quickly by birth and by immigration from Europe
Young was governor of Utah territory -- issue of polygamy prevented Utah's entrance to US until 1896
B. Reform - Education and the Workplace
1. Free School for a Free People
Tax supported, mandatory primary schools opposed by many as a hand-out to the poor
Support rose -- argument was that uneducated would grow up to be 'rabbles with voting rights'

Free education came about during the Jackson Age
Horace Mann - Father of Public Education - fought for better schools
School too expensive for many communities
McGuffey and Webster
2. Higher Goals for Higher Learning
2nd Great Awakening led to progress in education
Curriculum - Latin, Greek, Math, moral philosophy
Women thought to be corrupted if too educated; excluded for the most part
Emma Williard - established Troy Female Seminary (1821)
3. An Age of Reform
Reformers opposed: alcohol, profanity, other vices
Women very important in motivating these reform movements
Optimists who sought a perfect society
Some asking for peace (American Peace Society) - wanted to abolish war
4. Demon Rum - The Old Deluder
Drunkenness widespread in US
American Temperance Society (1826)
Adopted two major policies
Stressed temperance (individual will resist)
Legislature-removed temptation -- prohibition
5. Women in Revolt
American women better off than European
Gender differences increased sharply with different economic roles
women - weak physically and emotionally, fine for teaching
men - strong (crude and barbaric if not guided by women)
Joined abolitionist movement
Women's movement led by: Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Elizabeth Blackwell
Seneca Falls Women's Right Convention
Declaration of Sentiments -- all men and WOMEN are created equal
Demanded right to vote
Launched modern women's rights movement
D. Art and Literature
1. Artistic Achievement
Traditionally - imitated European styles
Aristocratic, stormy landscapes

Thomas Jefferson considered top architect of his generation (Monticello - UVA)
Gilbert Stuart - painted Washington
Charles Wilson Peale - painted 60 portraits of Washington
John Trumbull - captured Revolutionary War in dramatic fashion
2. Blossoming of National Literature
Often imported/plagiarized from England
A 'practical literature' in the US
Knickerbocker group (NY) first truly American literature
Washington Irving (1783-1859) -- first internationally recognized writing (The Sketch Book)
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) -- first US novelist (Leatherstock Tales - Last of the Mohicans)
William Cullen Bryant - first high quality poetry in the US
So live, that when thy summons comes to join
The innumerable caravan which moves
To that mysterious realm, where each shall take 75
His chamber in the silent halls of death,
Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night,
Scourged to his dungeon, but, sustained and soothed
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 80
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams.
3. Trumpeters of Transcendentalism
Stressed individualism, self-reliance, non-conformity; truth came from 'inner light'
Clashed with Locke - argued knowledge came from reason

Ralph Waldo Emerson - lecturer and poet
Influential as philosopher - self-government, self-reliance
Henry David Thoreau - On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
It is not wrong to disobey a wrong law
Walt Whitman - poet of 'democracy'
4. Literary Individualists and Dissenters
Reflections of Calvinist obsession with original sin and struggle between good and evil
Hawthorne, Nathaniel - The Scarlet Letter
Melville, Herman - Moby Dick
Edgar Allen Poe -- wrote 'The Raven'
Invented modern detective novel and psychological thriller
Reflected morbid sensibility
5. Portrayers of the Past
"Father of American History" - George Bancroft
Founded Naval Academy
William Prescott - published on conquest of Mexico, Peru
Francis Parkman - focused on struggle between France and England in North America
Why does this matter?
Most from north -- anti-south bias
Importance of authors of history
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