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Why study media history? etc.

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Catherine Cassara

on 24 April 2015

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Transcript of Why study media history? etc.

JOUR 4650
Sometimes we use models -- different ways of organizing information -- to make sense of history

Does it matter who the historian is?

What is media history?

Okay … so, let’s get started

How to approach class

Questions about syllabus?

Put together pieces of what history is and why study
What media history is

Eventually Campbell lost postmaster's job
He continued to publish the paper


Didn’t work …

Any content Campbell could find
English news & other items clipped from English papers
Often months old
Paid correspondents to send info from seaports

News-Letter content

Printed both sides of 1/2 sheet
But could pay to have it printed on larger paper
2 pages blank to write notes

News-Letter description

Started weekly in 1704
1st continuously published paper in British colonies
Appeared weekly until 1776
“Published with Authority”

the Boston News-Letter

The Boston News-Letter Number 1, 17-24 April 1704 28.4 cm x 16.8 cm Boston: B. Green, 1704

From Mass. Hist. Soc.

John Campbell
He was postmaster
A printer
A bookseller
Started weekly Boston News-Letter in 1704

1st successful publisher

Colonies 1st looked back to England not to each other
That was home
AND …took as long as 6 to 8 weeks to cross the Atlantic in good weather

Important to remember

4,000 people living in New York
4,000 people living in Philadelphia
7,000 people living in Boston

Why start in Boston?

Printing in colonial Boston

Meant were people who could pay
Were people with an interest in things Europe
Already going to coffee houses to read whatever papers came in on ships

commercial needs

Were presses
Were other resources
Were literate people w/time & need for information
Were commercial needs for information

Well?

Technology ...?
Audience ....?
Economics ...?
Content …?
Politics … ?
Government … ?


Why 1704? Let’s use model

1st regularly published paper came in 1704

Printed racy stuff about French king
Familiar rumors of scandals at court
Also, printed details of a failed campaign against French & Indians

What went wrong?

Didn't get copy approved by the authorities before printing
And/OR
Harris was a trouble maker who left England because of printing trouble
OR Friends with the wrong people

Why’d it fail?

Thought people needed correct info to make informed decisions
Was a printer & this was a way to make money
Was encouraged by some of the powers that be

Why did Harris publish?

On Sept. 25, 1690
Benjamin Harris printed
Publick Occurrences Both Forreign And Domestick
Supposed to be a monthly
Came out once

First publishing effort

It was set up in Massachusetts Bay Colony at Harvard
The first things printed were psalm books, sermons, Bibles for Indians
Took 60 years or more before there was a paper

But ….

“Plimouth Plantation” est. 1620
2 of Plymouth settlers were printers
But didn’t bring press with them
1st wouldn’t be brought over until late 1630s (up the coast)

To the north ….

1st regularly published periodical in Americas
Was in Mexico
Published by a church official
Ran for six months

IMPORTANT

Before 1500 in England
Information casually come across was called “tydings”
After 1500
As they started gathering information on purpose
They called it “newes”

2nd word

In Rome they issued daily reports of the govt. goings
These were called acta diurna …
From whence we get: JOURNALISM

First term…

Now some factoids – important but tidbits

Essentially the same press in use in mid- 1600s
First used in America for religious materials
Powers knew printed words were powerful

Print role in watershed

Several things to remember from Europe (whether from video or book)

Victors of wars or social struggle
Educated people
The elites with time, training and the resources

Who are historians?

Does it matter who the historian is?

Very young field, as history goes
Not all the work has been done
Not all of the facts uncovered
Established “facts” are not always understood the same way

Things to remember

First organizes by recurring factors
Second organizes by chronology

We’ll use 2

Context for journalism study
Better understanding of why things are like they are
Helps understand issues & problems more clearly
Been there, had those questions

why bother ?

BTW…
if I use a PPT background you like -- that’s easier to read, etc. -- let me know

The changing nature of media
The development of the profession(s)
Changing technology of media
Interaction of media & other forces in society

Story of:

How to understand things from an earlier time
In The Way People … In That Time … Understood Them
Putting puzzle pieces together the right way
Trying to avoid judging other times by our standards

More challenges...

finding evidence
finding records -- figuring out how incomplete they are
figuring out if evidence and is accurate & reliable
resolving issues of human agency

history challenges

All recorded events of the past
Branch of knowledge that deals systematically with the past: recording, analyzing, correlating, explaining of past events
A known or recorded past (that pair of jeans has a history)

More definitions:

An account of what has or might have happened, esp. In the form of narrative, play, story, of tale
What has happened in the life of, development of a people, country, institution, etc.
A systematic account of this, usually in chronological order with an analysis and explanation

Some definitions:

What is history?

…what did you come up with?
…what else did you dig out from videos via Prezi?

You start by observing
You learn over time by comparison
You build on your knowledge
You need what we learn in readings & class

The assignments

You are travelers
We make the journey together
But you will still need your own tools and equipment

I’m the guide

Will be work, but should be fun
If you need help finding the fun
Come to office hours
(Or make an appointment at another time)

Class philosophy

Monday, Sept. 9
CLASS meets
In 210B in the Library
Even if you are late (and come here first)
Get to library for some part!

but first a REMINDER!!!

News-Letter cost twopence a copy, (12 shillings a year)
SUCH a luxury …
Famous New England judge
Presented copies of the paper to ladies he called on

A few last details…..

Campbell published for 18 years
Never made $s
Never more than 300 subscribers
Tried not to offend, to keep postmaster job

Just a bit more

Campbell had been passing handwritten news letters
To important men in & beyond Massachusetts
Ggovernors of several other colonies, other postmasters, etc.

For at least 4 years

Northern cities developed business centers, the South was agrarian
Life focused on plantations and towns grew slowly
Communication systems also developed more slowly

Also

Info on ship arrivals and departures
Info on bad weather, on pirates
Info on wars, England, European actions, etc.
Info on things for sale

What news did they need?


Facts to remember …

1st press in Americas
In Mexico in 1534 by Spanish
In 1538 was a press in Peru
Presses used for Bibles, psalm books, etc.

Important for several additional reasons
Issues over oral vs written culture will arise in our study
Print technology and what went with it the same

More thoughts on video

Economic history
Social history
History of ideas
History with an ideological component
Marxist history

Are other approaches:

Colonial to 1830:
1830 to 1910:
1910 to 1960:
1960 to 1980:
1980 to present:

Chronologically …

Technology
Economics
Content
Audience
Politics
Government control

Persistent factors

Concerned with technological changes’ effect content
Gives you the perspective of a longer view
Provides insights on current issues & problems

And … Media history

Different types of media
Journalism
Entertainment
Ancillary industries -- advertising, PR, etc.

Story of …

Something that belongs to the past (the summer of 2001 is history)
Something important enough to be recorded
(Rare) a scientific account of natural inquiry

And finally…..

Pull together
What you read
What we do in class
What you find in your papers
Which we also discuss in class

The tests

You need concepts
To provide a context for facts
You need facts
To provide anchors for concepts

More on facts…

Talk about video
Introductions of you
Questions about syllabus
Class philosophy


Today’s class …

Aug. 29, 2013

Dr. Catherine Cassara

JOUR 4650

(Remember, however, printing doesn’t mean news…)

New Jersey,1723
Rhode Island,1727
S. Carolina,1731
N. Carolina,1749
New Hampshire,1756
Delaware,1761
Georgia,1763

Massachusets,1639
Virginia,1682
Maryland,1685
Pennsylvania,1685
New York,1693
Connecticut,1709


Dates of printing starts

1st regularly published paper came in 1704

Several things to remember from Europe (whether from video or book)

Does it matter who the historian is?

Sometimes we use models -- different ways of organizing information -- to make sense of history

Does it matter who the historian is?

BTW…
if I use a PPT background you like -- that’s easier to read, etc. -- let me know

What is history?

…what did you come up with?
…what else did you dig out from videos via Prezi?

How to approach class

Questions about syllabus?

News-Letter cost twopence a copy, (12 shillings a year)
SUCH a luxury …
Famous New England judge
Presented copies of the paper to ladies he called on

A few last details…..

Eventually Campbell lost postmaster's job
He continued to publish the paper


Didn’t work …

Any content Campbell could find
English news & other items clipped from English papers
Often months old
Paid correspondents to send info from seaports

News-Letter content

Started weekly in 1704
1st continuously published paper in British colonies
Appeared weekly until 1776
“Published with Authority”

the Boston News-Letter

Campbell had been passing handwritten news letters
To important men in & beyond Massachusetts
Ggovernors of several other colonies, other postmasters, etc.

For at least 4 years

John Campbell
He was postmaster
A printer
A bookseller
Started weekly Boston News-Letter in 1704

1st successful publisher

Northern cities developed business centers, the South was agrarian
Life focused on plantations and towns grew slowly
Communication systems also developed more slowly

Also

Printing in colonial Boston

Info on ship arrivals and departures
Info on bad weather, on pirates
Info on wars, England, European actions, etc.
Info on things for sale

What news did they need?

Meant were people who could pay
Were people with an interest in things Europe
Already going to coffee houses to read whatever papers came in on ships

commercial needs

Technology ...?
Audience ....?
Economics ...?
Content …?
Politics … ?
Government … ?


Why 1704? Let’s use model

Printed racy stuff about French king
Familiar rumors of scandals at court
Also, printed details of a failed campaign against French & Indians

What went wrong?

Didn't get copy approved by the authorities before printing
And/OR
Harris was a trouble maker who left England because of printing trouble
OR Friends with the wrong people

Why’d it fail?

It was set up in Massachusetts Bay Colony at Harvard
The first things printed were psalm books, sermons, Bibles for Indians
Took 60 years or more before there was a paper

But ….

“Plimouth Plantation” est. 1620
2 of Plymouth settlers were printers
But didn’t bring press with them
1st wouldn’t be brought over until late 1630s (up the coast)

To the north ….

1st regularly published periodical in Americas
Was in Mexico
Published by a church official
Ran for six months

IMPORTANT

Before 1500 in England
Information casually come across was called “tydings”
After 1500
As they started gathering information on purpose
They called it “newes”

2nd word

In Rome they issued daily reports of the govt. goings
These were called acta diurna …
From whence we get: JOURNALISM

First term…

Now some factoids – important but tidbits

Essentially the same press in use in mid- 1600s
First used in America for religious materials
Powers knew printed words were powerful

Print role in watershed

Economic history
Social history
History of ideas
History with an ideological component
Marxist history

Are other approaches:

Colonial to 1830:
1830 to 1910:
1910 to 1960:
1960 to 1980:
1980 to present:

Chronologically …

Technology
Economics
Content
Audience
Politics
Government control

Persistent factors

Context for journalism study
Better understanding of why things are like they are
Helps understand issues & problems more clearly
Been there, had those questions

why bother ?

Different types of media
Journalism
Entertainment
Ancillary industries -- advertising, PR, etc.

Story of …

The changing nature of media
The development of the profession(s)
Changing technology of media
Interaction of media & other forces in society

Story of:

What is media history?

How to understand things from an earlier time
In The Way People … In That Time … Understood Them
Putting puzzle pieces together the right way
Trying to avoid judging other times by our standards

More challenges...

finding evidence
finding records -- figuring out how incomplete they are
figuring out if evidence and is accurate & reliable
resolving issues of human agency

history challenges

Something that belongs to the past (the summer of 2001 is history)
Something important enough to be recorded
(Rare) a scientific account of natural inquiry

And finally…..

All recorded events of the past
Branch of knowledge that deals systematically with the past: recording, analyzing, correlating, explaining of past events
A known or recorded past (that pair of jeans has a history)

More definitions:

Okay … so, let’s get started

Pull together
What you read
What we do in class
What you find in your papers
Which we also discuss in class

The tests

You start by observing
You learn over time by comparison
You build on your knowledge
You need what we learn in readings & class

The assignments

You need concepts
To provide a context for facts
You need facts
To provide anchors for concepts

More on facts…

Will be work, but should be fun
If you need help finding the fun
Come to office hours
(Or make an appointment at another time)

Class philosophy

Monday, Sept. 9
CLASS meets
In 210B in the Library
Even if you are late (and come here first)
Get to library for some part!

but first a REMINDER!!!

Put together pieces of what history is and why study
What media history is

Talk about video
Introductions of you
Questions about syllabus
Class philosophy


Today’s class …

Campbell published for 18 years
Never made $s
Never more than 300 subscribers
Tried not to offend, to keep postmaster job

Just a bit more

Printed both sides of 1/2 sheet
But could pay to have it printed on larger paper
2 pages blank to write notes

News-Letter description

The Boston News-Letter Number 1, 17-24 April 1704 28.4 cm x 16.8 cm Boston: B. Green, 1704

From Mass. Hist. Soc.

Colonies 1st looked back to England not to each other
That was home
AND …took as long as 6 to 8 weeks to cross the Atlantic in good weather

Important to remember

4,000 people living in New York
4,000 people living in Philadelphia
7,000 people living in Boston

Why start in Boston?

Were presses
Were other resources
Were literate people w/time & need for information
Were commercial needs for information

Well?

Thought people needed correct info to make informed decisions
Was a printer & this was a way to make money
Was encouraged by some of the powers that be

Why did Harris publish?

On Sept. 25, 1690
Benjamin Harris printed
Publick Occurrences Both Forreign And Domestick
Supposed to be a monthly
Came out once

First publishing effort


Facts to remember …

1st press in Americas
In Mexico in 1534 by Spanish
In 1538 was a press in Peru
Presses used for Bibles, psalm books, etc.

Important for several additional reasons
Issues over oral vs written culture will arise in our study
Print technology and what went with it the same

More thoughts on video

Victors of wars or social struggle
Educated people
The elites with time, training and the resources

Who are historians?

Very young field, as history goes
Not all the work has been done
Not all of the facts uncovered
Established “facts” are not always understood the same way

Things to remember

First organizes by recurring factors
Second organizes by chronology

We’ll use 2

Concerned with technological changes’ effect content
Gives you the perspective of a longer view
Provides insights on current issues & problems

And … Media history

An account of what has or might have happened, esp. In the form of narrative, play, story, of tale
What has happened in the life of, development of a people, country, institution, etc.
A systematic account of this, usually in chronological order with an analysis and explanation

Some definitions:

You are travelers
We make the journey together
But you will still need your own tools and equipment

I’m the guide

(Remember, however, printing doesn’t mean news…)

New Jersey,1723
Rhode Island,1727
S. Carolina,1731
N. Carolina,1749
New Hampshire,1756
Delaware,1761
Georgia,1763

Massachusets,1639
Virginia,1682
Maryland,1685
Pennsylvania,1685
New York,1693
Connecticut,1709


Dates of printing starts

Now some factoids –
important but tidbits

Several things to remember
from Europe (whether from video or book)

Does it matter who
the historian is?

Sometimes we use models --
different ways of organizing
information -- to make sense
of history

What is media history?

In Rome they issued daily reports
of the govt. goings
These were called acta diurna …
From whence we get: JOURNALISM

First term…

Important for several additional reasons
Issues over oral vs written culture will arise in our study
Print technology and what went with it the same

Thoughts on video

Victors of wars or social struggle
Educated people
The elites with time, training and the resources

Who are historians?

Economic history
Social history
History of ideas
History with an ideological component
Marxist history

Are other approaches:

Very young field, as history goes
Not all the work has been done
Not all of the facts uncovered
Established “facts” are not always understood
the same way

Things to remember

Colonial to 1830
1830 to 1910
1910 to 1960
1960 to 1980
1980 to 1993
1993 to present

Chronologically …

Technology
Economics
Content
Audience
Politics
Government control

Persistent factors

Context for journalism study
Better understanding of why things are like they are
Helps understand issues & problems more clearly
Been there, had those questions

why bother ?

The changing nature of media
The development of the profession(s)
Changing technology of media
Interaction of media & other forces in society

Story of:

How to understand things from an earlier time
In The Way People … In That Time … Understood Them
Putting puzzle pieces together the right way
Trying to avoid judging other times by our standards

More challenges...

All recorded events of the past
Branch of knowledge that deals systematically with the past: recording, analyzing, correlating, explaining of past events
A known or recorded past (that pair of jeans has a history)

More definitions:

Before 1500 in England
Information casually come across was
called “tydings”
After 1500
As they started gathering information
on purpose
They called it “newes”

2nd word

Essentially the same press in use in mid-1600s
First used in America for religious materials
Powers knew printed words were powerful

Print role in watershed

First organizes by recurring factors
Second organizes by chronology

We’ll use 2

Concerned with technological changes’ effect content
Gives you the perspective of a longer view
Provides insights on current issues & problems

And … Media history

Different types of media
Journalism
Entertainment
Ancillary industries -- advertising, PR, etc.

Story of …

An account of what has or might have happened, esp. In the form of narrative, play, story, of tale
What has happened in the life of, development of a people, country, institution, etc.
A systematic account of this, usually in chronological order with an analysis and explanation

Some definitions:

Last week
I did not offer the opportunity for questions
When you read your syllabi
What questions did you have?

Correction of an oversight!

Finish talking about study of history
Talk about why study
MEDIA
history
How we study media history
Maybe get to colonies



Today’s class …


1st regularly published paper came in 1704

Now some factoids – important but tidbits

Does it matter who the historian is?

Sometimes we use models -- different ways of organizing information -- to make sense of history

Does it matter who the historian is?

BTW…
if I use a PPT background you like -- that’s easier to read, etc. -- let me know

What is media history?

What is history?

…what did you come up with?
…what else did you dig out from videos via Prezi?

Okay … so, let’s get started

How to approach class

Questions about syllabus?

News-Letter cost twopence a copy, (12 shillings a year)
SUCH a luxury …
Famous New England judge
Presented copies of the paper to ladies he called on

A few last details…..

Eventually Campbell lost postmaster's job
He continued to publish the paper


Didn’t work …

Any content Campbell could find
English news & other items clipped from English papers
Often months old
Paid correspondents to send info from seaports

News-Letter content

Started weekly in 1704
1st continuously published paper in British colonies
Appeared weekly until 1776
“Published with Authority”

the Boston News-Letter

Campbell had been passing handwritten news letters
To important men in & beyond Massachusetts
Ggovernors of several other colonies, other postmasters, etc.

For at least 4 years

John Campbell
He was postmaster
A printer
A bookseller
Started weekly Boston News-Letter in 1704

1st successful publisher

Northern cities developed business centers, the South was agrarian
Life focused on plantations and towns grew slowly
Communication systems also developed more slowly

Also

4,000 people living in New York
4,000 people living in Philadelphia
7,000 people living in Boston

Why start in Boston?

Printing in colonial Boston

Info on ship arrivals and departures
Info on bad weather, on pirates
Info on wars, England, European actions, etc.
Info on things for sale

What news did they need?

Meant were people who could pay
Were people with an interest in things Europe
Already going to coffee houses to read whatever papers came in on ships

commercial needs

Technology ...?
Audience ....?
Economics ...?
Content …?
Politics … ?
Government … ?


Why 1704? Let’s use model

Printed racy stuff about French king
Familiar rumors of scandals at court
Also, printed details of a failed campaign against French & Indians

What went wrong?

Didn't get copy approved by the authorities before printing
And/OR
Harris was a trouble maker who left England because of printing trouble
OR Friends with the wrong people

Why’d it fail?

Thought people needed correct info to make informed decisions
Was a printer & this was a way to make money
Was encouraged by some of the powers that be

Why did Harris publish?

On Sept. 25, 1690
Benjamin Harris printed
Publick Occurrences Both Forreign And Domestick
Supposed to be a monthly
Came out once

First publishing effort

“Plimouth Plantation” est. 1620
2 of Plymouth settlers were printers
But didn’t bring press with them
1st wouldn’t be brought over until late 1630s (up the coast)

To the north ….


Facts to remember …

1st press in Americas
In Mexico in 1534 by Spanish
In 1538 was a press in Peru
Presses used for Bibles, psalm books, etc.

In Rome they issued daily reports of the govt. goings
These were called acta diurna …
From whence we get: JOURNALISM

First term…

Important for several additional reasons
Issues over oral vs written culture will arise in our study
Print technology and what went with it the same

More thoughts on video

Several things to remember from Europe (whether from video or book)

Victors of wars or social struggle
Educated people
The elites with time, training and the resources

Who are historians?

Economic history
Social history
History of ideas
History with an ideological component
Marxist history

Are other approaches:

Colonial to 1830:
1830 to 1910:
1910 to 1960:
1960 to 1980:
1980 to present:

Chronologically …

Technology
Economics
Content
Audience
Politics
Government control

Persistent factors

Context for journalism study
Better understanding of why things are like they are
Helps understand issues & problems more clearly
Been there, had those questions

why bother ?

Different types of media
Journalism
Entertainment
Ancillary industries -- advertising, PR, etc.

Story of …

How to understand things from an earlier time
In The Way People … In That Time … Understood Them
Putting puzzle pieces together the right way
Trying to avoid judging other times by our standards

More challenges...

finding evidence
finding records -- figuring out how incomplete they are
figuring out if evidence and is accurate & reliable
resolving issues of human agency

history challenges

All recorded events of the past
Branch of knowledge that deals systematically with the past: recording, analyzing, correlating, explaining of past events
A known or recorded past (that pair of jeans has a history)

More definitions:

You start by observing
You learn over time by comparison
You build on your knowledge
You need what we learn in readings & class

The assignments

You need concepts
To provide a context for facts
You need facts
To provide anchors for concepts

More on facts…

You are travelers
We make the journey together
But you will still need your own tools and equipment

I’m the guide

Monday, Sept. 9
CLASS meets
In 210B in the Library
Even if you are late (and come here first)
Get to library for some part!

but first a REMINDER!!!

Put together pieces of what history is and why study
What media history is

Talk about video
Introductions of you
Questions about syllabus
Class philosophy


Today’s class …

Campbell published for 18 years
Never made $s
Never more than 300 subscribers
Tried not to offend, to keep postmaster job

Just a bit more

Printed both sides of 1/2 sheet
But could pay to have it printed on larger paper
2 pages blank to write notes

News-Letter description

The Boston News-Letter Number 1, 17-24 April 1704 28.4 cm x 16.8 cm Boston: B. Green, 1704

From Mass. Hist. Soc.

Colonies 1st looked back to England not to each other
That was home
AND …took as long as 6 to 8 weeks to cross the Atlantic in good weather

Important to remember

Were presses
Were other resources
Were literate people w/time & need for information
Were commercial needs for information

Well?

It was set up in Massachusetts Bay Colony at Harvard
The first things printed were psalm books, sermons, Bibles for Indians
Took 60 years or more before there was a paper

But ….

1st regularly published periodical in Americas
Was in Mexico
Published by a church official
Ran for six months

IMPORTANT

Before 1500 in England
Information casually come across was called “tydings”
After 1500
As they started gathering information on purpose
They called it “newes”

2nd word

Essentially the same press in use in mid- 1600s
First used in America for religious materials
Powers knew printed words were powerful

Print role in watershed

Very young field, as history goes
Not all the work has been done
Not all of the facts uncovered
Established “facts” are not always understood the same way

Things to remember

First organizes by recurring factors
Second organizes by chronology

We’ll use 2

Concerned with technological changes’ effect content
Gives you the perspective of a longer view
Provides insights on current issues & problems

And … Media history

The changing nature of media
The development of the profession(s)
Changing technology of media
Interaction of media & other forces in society

Story of:

Something that belongs to the past (the summer of 2001 is history)
Something important enough to be recorded
(Rare) a scientific account of natural inquiry

And finally…..

An account of what has or might have happened, esp. In the form of narrative, play, story, of tale
What has happened in the life of, development of a people, country, institution, etc.
A systematic account of this, usually in chronological order with an analysis and explanation

Some definitions:

Pull together
What you read
What we do in class
What you find in your papers
Which we also discuss in class

The tests

Will be work, but should be fun
If you need help finding the fun
Come to office hours
(Or make an appointment at another time)

Class philosophy

(Remember, however, printing doesn’t mean news…)

New Jersey,1723
Rhode Island,1727
S. Carolina,1731
N. Carolina,1749
New Hampshire,1756
Delaware,1761
Georgia,1763

Massachusets,1639
Virginia,1682
Maryland,1685
Pennsylvania,1685
New York,1693
Connecticut,1709


Dates of printing starts

Sept. 4, 2013
Catherine Cassara

But, first
Yet, one more reminder
Monday we have class in 210B Jerome Library
Very important to the success of your first assignment
Even if you come to this room & don't find us here, still come late to library
And finally (for the definitions)…..
Something that belongs to the past (the summer of 2013 is history)
Something important enough to be recorded
(Rare) a scientific account of natural inquiry
doing history: the challenges
finding evidence
finding records -- figuring out how incomplete they are
figuring out if evidence and is accurate & reliable
resolving issues of human agency
for any history...
Does it matter who
the historian is?
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