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Chang Kai-shek and communism

World geography Project!!

Brandon Pitzer

on 10 May 2010

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Transcript of Chang Kai-shek and communism

Chiang Kai-shek was born in Xikou, a town approximately 30 kilometers southwest of downtown Ningbo, in Fenghua County, Ningbo Prefecture, Zhejiang Province. However, his ancestral home, a concept important in Chinese society, was the town of Heqiao () in Yixing County, Wuxi, Jiangsu (approximately 38 km (24 mi) southwest of downtown Wuxi, and 10 km (6.2 mi) from the shores of the Lake Tai).

His father, Chiang Zhaocong (), and mother, Wang Caiyu (), were members of an upper to upper-middle-class family of salt merchants. His father died when Kai-shek was only eight years of age, and he wrote of his mother as the "embodiment of Confucian virtues." In an arranged marriage, Chiang was married to a fellow villager by the name of Mao Fumei.[4] Chiang and Mao had a son, Ching-Kuo and a daughter Chien-hua.[5]

After Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Chiang resigned as Chairman of the National Government. He returned shortly, adopting the slogan "first internal pacification, then external resistance". However, this policy of avoiding a frontal war against the Japanese was widely unpopular. Especially so, when in 1932, while Chiang was seeking first to defeat the Communists, Japan launched an advance on Shanghai and bombarded Nanjing. This disrupted Chiang Kai-shek's offensives against Communists for a time, although it was the northern factions of Hu Han-min's Canton Government (notably the 19th Route Army) that primarily led the offensive against the Japanese during this skirmish. Brought into the Nationalist army immediately after the battle, the 19th Route Army's career under Chiang would be cut short after it was disbanded for demonstrating socialist tendencies In 1945 when Japan surrendered, Chiang's Chongqing government was ill-equipped and ill-prepared to reassert its authority in formerly Japanese-occupied China, and asked the Japanese to postpone their surrender until KMT authority could arrive to take over. This was an unpopular move among a population that, for many, had spent more than a decade under often brutal foreign occupation. American troops and weapons soon bolstered KMT forces, allowing them to reclaim cities. The countryside, however, remained mostly out of Nationalist hands Chiang moved the government to Taipei, Taiwan, where he formally resumed duties as president on March 1, 1950.[15] Chiang was reelected by the National Assembly to be the President of the ROC on May 20, 1954 and again in 1960, 1966, and 1972. He continued to claim sovereignty over all of China, which he defined as China proper and Taiwan, Mongolia, and Tibet. In the context of the Cold War, most of the Western world recognized this position and the ROC represented "China" in the United Nations and other international organizations until the 1970s.

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