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Scrapie

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by

Annie Meeder

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Scrapie

Restrictions for the Animal During Infection
Scrapie causes the animal infected to be constantly itching, thus the animal is forced to rub off its own wool or hair in attempt to remove the itch.
It increases the animal's response to danger.
It causes the animal to have trouble standing.
It inevitably causes death.
Thank You To...
http://depositphotos.com/13574379/stock-illustration-White-blood-cell-cartoon.html
Scrapie
Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that effects the nervous systems of sheep and goats. It is a TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) and--like other TSEs--is caused by a prion. The prion causes other normal proteins in the host's body system to bend in the wrong way, which kills the protein.
Virus vs. Bacteria
Growth: viruses grow by reproducing in cells.
Reproduction:
Lytic:
viruses copy themselves using the host cell's organs until the host cell explodes.
Lysogenic:
viruses copy themselves along with the host cell.
Prions
Scrapie

By Annie Meeder & Futaba Imai
Scrapie is neither a virus or a bacteria,
it is a prion.
A prion is an infectious agent composed of protein composed in a misfolded form.
Growth: Bacteria increase in cell size and grow by reproducing.
Reproduction: bacteria have their own organelles, so they reproduce through binary fission. If they live in a host cell they reproduce along with the host.
Symptoms:
Stepping high with their front feet
Hopping like a rabbit
Shaking
Swaying
Stumbling
Smacking their lips
Frequent itching
Hunched back
How the Body Fights
Viruses and Bacteria
The skin is the body's first and strongest defense against pathogens. If the pathogens do pass the layer of dead cells they encounter many bodily acids that eliminate them. Although, if a pathogen does make it into the bloodstream the inflammatory response releases millions of white blood cells--some of these mark the infected cells and some engulf the infected cells.
General Treatments
Antibiotics: antibiotics are--such as penicillin a type of mold--produced naturally in which bacteria cannot grow near or in. However, antibiotics have no effect on viral diseases. There has been drugs developed to inhibit the viruses' ability to invade cells and multiply once inside cells, but they do not stop the viruses already infecting the body.
Over-The-Counter-Drugs: these medicines only temporarily relieve symptoms of the disease and do not actually treat the infection.
Antibodies: they are released by the body to bind to and destroy pathogens. Once antibodies overcome the pathogen the body will be immune to that infection.
Vaccine: vaccines are injections of weakened pathogens to produce immunity.
Historical Figures in the Discovery of Scrapie
1759- German Publication:
"A shepherd must isolate such an animal (with scrapie) from healthy stock immediately because it is infectious and can cause serious harm to the flock."
1913-Sir Stewart Stockman:
Reported that there was a 2-3 year incubation period for scrapie transmission.
1932-Grieg:
Observed that sheep could get scrapie from pastures where other sheep had grazed.
1936-Chelle and Cuille:
Reported that scrapie was an infectious and transmissible disease.
http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/physics/brau/H182/Prusiner%20reading/HISTORICAL%20NOTES%20PRION%20DISEASES.pdf
http://ineradicablestain.com/skin.html
www.microbeworld.org/what-is-a-microbe‎
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrapie
When sheep get scrapie, they don't show any signs at first, so it is difficult to tell if they have the disease. There is no treatment for affected sheep, you can only prevent it. If you find scrapie in your stock, you need to remove the sick sheep from the other sheep and keep the lambing area clean.
http://www.expathealthinsuranceblog.com/2012/08/21/antibiotics-and-your-expat-health-insurance-could-mean-savings-on-your-expat-health-insurance-selection/
http://www.fdalawyersblog.com/2012/05/over-the-counter-drug-new-para.html
http://discovermagazine.com/2009/jun/06-why-does-vaccine-autism-controversy-live-on/#.UoVLIZEZK8A
http://www.eradicatescrapie.org/About%20Scrapie/Fact%20Sheet.html
http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/adams/ag/scrapie.htm
http://www.nndb.com/people/870/000024798/
Treatment:
http://dig.csail.mit.edu/2008/Talks/0902-privacy-fx-bergen/
http://www.gryphontor.com/showarticle.php?id=6
http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/disease-control/notifiable/scrapie/
Severity of Disease
There is no cure for scrapie, thus the animal must face the painful disease before a, possibly, welcoming death succumbs them.
http://vir.sgmjournals.org/content/83/11/2907.full
Skin's Response
Sheep or goats who are affected are typically 2 to 5 years of age. Lambs, however, can get scrapie from its mother's milk. The disease is fatal so a week to six months later, the sheep or goat will die after symptoms first appear.
Length of Time the Animal is Affected
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie/downloads/scrapie_brochure.pdf
http://www.critternook.com/how-to-raise-sheep-as-pets-8-easy-tips-for-new-sheep-owners-to-remember/
Scrapie is not able to get through the skin, but through cuts in the skin and other openings in the body.
When the prions are absorbed into the intestines they travel to nodes where they build up.
http://www.chinatexnet.com/China/Buying-Leads/Buy-dry-salt-sheep-skin-62373.html
http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/prion/prion2.html
The Body's Response
1738-H.B. Perry:
"Scrapie: a transmittable and hereditary disease of sheep"
There is no serological immune response to the scrapie agent.
http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.07.13_SCRAPIE.pdf
http://capralogics.com/sheep-antibodies
http://www.antibodies-online.com/antibody/351084/anti-Neurotrophic+tyrosine+Kinase+Receptor+Type+3+NTRK3+Extracellular+Domain/
Vaccination
There are no vaccines available
for scrapie at the time.
Sheep may be more susceptible to other diseases while carrying the scrapie prion because of all the openings the animal has rubbed into its skin, making it much easier to be infected. If an animal does catch another disease, it will easily kill the animal earlier than the scrapie disease would because without the proteins needed to fight disease a sheep or goat may not be able to fight off the simple cold.
http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/MD004143/runny-nose-of-bighorn-sheep
http://mdsheepgoat.blogspot.com/2008/04/five-goats-diagnosed-with-scrapie.html
http://goatshowdoc.com/tag/scrapie/
Can an Animal with Scrapie be Infected
with Another Disease?
Full transcript