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The Philippines in Rizal's Time

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Maris Abas

on 13 November 2013

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Transcript of The Philippines in Rizal's Time

The Spanish
Colonial System

The Evils of Spanish
Colonial System

The Philippines in Rizal's Time
Overview of Spanish Slavery
16th Century Spain
made it a custom to hold a non-Christian slave
Slaves were usually blacks (from Africa)
Some slaves were Moros (from other captives in wars)
Slaves were considered goods
taken to the main market (Calle de las Guades)
sold at public auction / dealers
Slaves Duties
Works:
bakers
blacksmith
jewelers
stonemasons
tailors
weavers
others:
can be rented by another
sent for his master's personal debts
to serve a jail for his master's place
Fray Pedro Mejia
one of the most prominent slave exporters
Bishop Rodriguez de Fonseca
put up slaves in seville marts as naked as they were born
child of a slave was automatically the master's possession
The Laws of the Indies
promulgated by the Christian monarchs of Spain
to protect the rights of the native in Spain's overseas colonies
promote their welfare
Spain governed its colonies through Ministro de Ultramar (Ministry of Colonies)
Functions:
helped the Spanish monarch in governing the colonies
exercised legislative, executive, judicial and religious powers
Headed by Governor - General
Powers of a Gov. General:
state power
power over religious matters
power to issue executive orders and proclamations
power to act as a commander in chief
power over all financial matters
power over all the affairs in the Philippines
power to supervise and discipline
Agencies that checked the Governor-General
Royal Audiencia
Residencia
Visita
Royal Audiencia
was the supreme court in Spain
it possess judicial, legislative and executive powers
Functions:
do as gov. general in case post is vacant
do as promulgator of laws for the colonies
do as auditor to the colonies; and
do as judge of all criminal case in the land
Residencia
was a judicial body
Function:
put under trial that those outgoing governors and other spanish officials
Purpose:
to uncover the corruption of the Spanish officials
Visita
was and investigating agency
investigating officer is called Visitador
Functions:
to investigate the conditions of the country, the works of the governor-general and other Spanish officials
to investigate cases, such as:
conflict between gov. general and the Royal Audiencia and pronounce judgement over the case.
Provincial Government
Kinds of Provinces (under provincial government)
Kn wn
Unkn wn
-were called alcaldias
- headed by an alcalde mayor
-were called corregimientos
- headed by a coregidor (an army officer)
The Political System
City/Municipal Government
-also called Aguntamiento
-headed by two alcaldes en ordinario (mayor & vice mayor)
Barangay
-called cabeza de barangay
-headed by a filipino or a chinese mestizo
-the guardia civil (headed by an alferez) helped the cabeza de barangay
functions:
-to maintain peace and order
-to collect taxes from the people
The Social System
-feudalism was the social structure of the Philippines society
Structure of the Philippines society
the Spanish officials


the few favored Filipinos

the Indios
The Encomienda System
came from the word encomendar
person in charge is called encomendero
Spanish monarch granted lands to certain individual who had rendered great services to Spain
rights of Encomendero:
right to collect tributes
use the personal services of the inhabitants
Obligations of Encomendero:
to protect the people
give them some education
The Tribute
Filipinos paid tribute as a symbol of vassalage to Spain.
consists of eight reales, payable in kind or money.
The Polo
instituted in 1580
was impose on the Filipinos, except the chieftains and their sons
Filipinos were required to serve 40 days
polistas given only 1/4 real w/ some rice per day
Bandala
introduced by Gov. Gen. Hurtado de Corcuera
is and annual quota assigned to each province
everyone had to make a compulsory sale of his products to the government
Divide and Rule
Spaniards recruited the natives in one region to support them and use them to put down the revolts in another region
The Guardia Civil
instituted in 1852
to maintain peace and order in the Philippine islands especially in the provinces
most of its members were untrained and ignorant, thus they turned out to be agents of abuses
some of this abuses are maltreating innocent people, looting their carabaos chickens, valuable belongings and raping helpless women
Failure of the Colonial Administration
due to decline of Spain in the 19th century, the Philippines also affected
the Spain changed the policies in the Philippines and made periodic replacements of spanish officials.
therefore, the Philippines economy and politics grew from bad to worse to worse at that time
Corrupt Spanish Officialdom
Gen. Rafael de Izguierdo enraged the Filipino people by executing GomBurZa in 1872
Gen. Fernando Primo de Rivera
enriched himself through bribes and gambling clubs in Manila
Gov. Camilo de Polavieja
the one who executes Rizal
Denial of Human Rights and Inequality before the Law
spanish constitution of 1812 made several changes such as
freedom of the press
freedom of speech
freedom to association
-Spaniards cherished these rights among themselves only, thus they denied this rights to the Filipinos
-the Leyes de Indies provide good laws for the Philippines but were not implemented
-promulgated by the Christian monarchs of Spain to protect the rights of the natives in Spain colonies and to promote their welfare
Maladministration of Justice
-corruption characterized the courts in the Philippines because justice was costly, partial and slow.
-in winning a case, wealth, prestige, and color of skin were the necessary factors.
Racial Discrimination
-Filipinos were regarded as inferior beings
Frailocracy
-called frailocracy because it was "a government of Friars"
-Friars are consists of Augustinians, Dominicans and Franciscans
Full transcript