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Transcript of Logos lesson
The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing
pathos, logos, and ethos
To review,logos is an appeal based on logic and reasoning.
starts with a general assumption and uses that assumption to reach a specific conclusion*
logic that is flawed, exaggerated, or misrepresented
we will examine two types of reasoning:
inductive & deductive
an appeal based on emotion; using emotionally charged words or images to get the audience to think or do what you want.
logos: an appeal based
on logic and reason
Inductive reasoning takes specifics and uses them to form a generalization that is supported by the specific examples.
example: Fair trade agreements have raised the quality of life for coffee producers, so fair trade agreements could be used to help other farmers as well.
Specific: life for coffee producers
General: life for other kinds of farmers
If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment, eventually the government will ban all cars.
I drank bottled water, and now I am sick, so
the bottled water must have made me sick.
"post hoc, ergo propter hoc"
Greenpeace's strategies aren't effective
because they're all dirty, lazy hippies.
"ad hominem" attack: an attempt to negate the truth of a claim by pointing out a negative characteristic or belief of the person advocating it
If you were a true American, you would support the rights of people to choose whatever vehicle they want.
*deductive reasoning is a bit more involved & complex
(called syllogisms) consist of
premises (accepted facts)
and a conclusion
major premise (A): All men are mortal.
minor premise (B): Mr. Moore is a man.
conclusion (C): Mr. Moore will one day die.
premise #1: work=eventual success
premise #2: success=happiness
conclusion: work=eventual happiness
This woman wears
She is very famous
If you wear blue eyeshadow
you'll be famous too!
Since everyone knows that rap music is the greatest way to teach self-expression, Missy Elliot should be played at the beginning of every English class.
valid, but unsound since not everyone accepts as true the assertion that rap music results in teaching self-expression
Sound (since premises
are true), but invalid since we cannot accept the conclusion as
logically following the
major premise: churchgoers are always honest people
minor premise: John says he goes to church
conclusion: John doesn't lie
Is this a valid argument?
Is this a sound conclusion?
There are two types of reasoning:
generalization based on truths
generally accepted facts
one specific conclusion
Syllogistic arguments must be both
valid AND sound!
Valid if the conclusion logically
follows the premises.
1. argument is valid
2. premises are all true