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IB World History: Causes of WWI
Transcript of IB World History: Causes of WWI
German Foreign Policy Felt it conflicted with other alliances
(Dual Alliance of 1879 and Mediterranean
Aggreements of 1887) Britain refuses to join the Triple Alliance Germany thought the British would eventually help form the "Quadruple Alliance.
"The liability of having to defend the German and Austrian frontiers against Russia is greater than that of having to defend the British Isles against France." --British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury Consequences: France and Russia draw together Kaiser visits London in July of 1891 - makes Russia think they are already allied with Britain
Russia responds by entering an entente with France and eventually forming the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894. Upper Nile and Fashoda Crisis Nationalism and World-Wide
Imperial Rivalries Russo Japanese War (1904-1905) Anglo Japanese Treaty of 1902 South Africa Anglo-French rivalry in Egypt and the Sudan comes to a head in Fashoda. 1898
Both sides want the Nile, but decide to settle diplomatically British and German interests clash here.
Britain gets the feeling that the Germans are meddling in their affairs. Results in growing anti-German sentiment.
Boers declare war on Britain in 1900 expecting intervention by the continental powers (France, Germany, Russia)
No help comes, Britain defeats the Boers Britain and Japan form a defensive alliance because they worry about Russia trying to have too much of an influence in China. The Anglo -Japanese Treaty allos Japan to defeat Russia and halt Russian expansion. Triple Entente The Anglo-French Entente Anglo-German Naval Rivalry French accept British Control at Fashoda British desire to reach colonial settlement with France Entente
-1904 The Anglo-Russian Agreement Defeat by the Japanese and 1905 Revolution temporarily remove the Russian Threat to the British British want to end the colonial rivalry with the Russians French pressure on Russia to improve relations with Britain Anglo-Russian Colonial Agreement - 1907 Moroccan Crisis - 1911 British response makes compromise difficult Ends in major diplomatic defeat for Germany French intervention in Fez Consequences German Reaction: Dispatch of the Panther Acceleration of arms
Franco-Russian naval convention and military staff talks
Franco-British naval staff talks
Britain and France exchange letters defining Entente (1912) Growing tension between Austria and Russia
Serbia aims to liberate South Slavs in Austria
In order to stop this, Austria annexes Serbia and Herzegovina
Austria is backed by Germany, Russia is forced to stand down (Embarrassing...)
First Balkan War (1912) ends in destruction of Turkish power in the Balkans, Serbia's power limited by creation of Albania (Treaty of London - May 1913)
Second Balkan War (1913) ends in defeat of Bulgaria and strengthening of Serbian power (can now resist Austrian pressure. The Balkans and the Great Powers 1906-1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Germany gives Austria a "blank cheque" to take action on Serbia
Austria makes an ultimatum
Serbia rejects it
Russia mobilizes (they don't want Austro-Hungarian domination in the region)
Germany mobilizes (because of the Schleiffen Plan)
France hesitates (because of the Dual Alliance with Russia.
Germany fully enacts the Schlieffen Plan Outbreak of WWI