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The History of English Language

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daria perepelitsa

on 11 November 2012

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Transcript of The History of English Language

What will we speak about?
1. Old English
2. Middle English
3.Modern English
4. English as international (global) language
5.Varieties of English
6. Origin of some words/phrases
7. English today. The History of the
English Language OLD ENGLISH Origin of English Old English: Anglo-Saxon England: Englaland „land of the Angles“ Other Influences → Old Norse
→ Latin
→ Celtic




The langues d´oui, Anglo- Norman → Old Norse The Vikings in England angra – enge – anger

lagu – lagu – law

skyrta – scyrte – shirt Old English Latin Alphabet

A B C D E F G(ᵹ) H I K L M N O P Q R S(ſ) T V X Y Z

Æ, æ – (ash)

Ð, ð – (eth/edh)

Þ, þ – (thorn)

Ƿ , ƿ – (wynn)

⁊ - (Tironian symbol for „and“) Via Germanic:

butyrum – butere – butter

coquus – coc – cook

unica – ynce – inch

Via Christian Mission:

altare – alter, altar – altar

candela – candel – candle schola – scol – school Written Sources

scarce Anglo-Saxon Rune
writings

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Beowulf Middle English
from the late 11th
till the late 15th century Norman Conquest in 1066 Old Norman The rare construction of the words
for animals being separate from
the words for their meat the Brittonic substrate, continuous aspect

-to be doing/ to have been doing 6.Anglo- Saxon Chronicle
( Old Norman, Latin) Middle English Modern English Early Modern English
(1500-1800) (EModE) Used from the beginning of the Tudor period until the English Interregnum and Restoration
Modern readers are able to understand texts written during late phase this period: Shakespeare, King James Bible Late Modern English
(1800-Present) Main difference is vocabulary
The Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words
The British Empire at its height covered ¼ of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words.
The Industrial Revolution created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries English as International
(Global) language English is the language of science and
technology, of academic writing,
reference and research etc “Globish" The varieties learned are often
based on American or
British English. Lingua franca
English language is used
between speakers of different languages in order to communicate.

1 billion non-native
English speakers “A language has traditionally become
an international language
for one main reason: the power of its people -
especially
their political and military power”. British political imperialism at the end of the 19th century postcolonial period economic power in the 20th century link between economic and cultural power export of culture development of new means of transportation new communication technologies Education The Internet

Advertising Pop culture

Downsides

Advertising

Advertising Advertising Varieties of English

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising large degree of regional dialect variation
large number of dialects and English-based creole languages
pidgins accepted as standards in many
parts of the world,

educated dialect of
South East England Oceania
of Australian English
General Australian is the standard accent
subvarieties, such as Cockney, Scouse and Geordie pluricentric language, without a central language authority

Advertising With the Acts of Union in 1707 a process of language attrition began


dispute about Scots being regarded as a separate language or as a dialect of English...

Advertising The most of this variation to die out.
The Survey of English Dialects aimed to collect the full range of speech
in England and Wales before local
differences were to disappear

Advertising The Anglo-Saxon verb vocabulary
consists of short verbs,
but its grammar is
pretty complex. Ogden said, "Seven years to learn
English, seven months for Esperanto,
and seven weeks for Basic English."

Advertising
English today – current
transformation of the
English language The Washington Post Neologism Competition INTERNET/SMS/MULTIMEDIA ENGLISH Transformations of the English Language IMHO
In My Humble Opinion
PCM
Please Call Me
TCR
Take Care INTERNET/SMS/MULTIMEDIA ENGLISH SMS
Short Message Service
LOL
Laughing Out Loud
ROFL
Rolling On Floor Laughing
BFF
Best Friends Forever INTERNET/SMS/MULTIMEDIA ENGLISH

Muffin top Cultural Neologisms Chillax Cultural Neologisms

Brangelina Cultural Neologisms NEOLOGISMS Trademarks that are Genericized Modern English Is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, completed in roughly 1550. Can be divided into two periods: Early Modern English and Late Modern English The letter thorn (þ) finally fell into disuse English spelling The Provisions of Oxford 1362

Edward III Etymology Is the study of the history
of words Anglo-Saxon is a West-Germanic variety Similarity of
numbers: four – vier
six – sechs
eight - acht
nine – neun
pronouns: I/mine/me - ich/mein/mich
thou/thine/thee - du/dein/dich
we/wir
us/uns
she/sie Normans conquered England in 1066: Anglo-Norman of French origin Beef – bœuf
veal – veau
pork – porc
poultry – poulet Loanwords from other
languages: Spanish: alligator, rodeo, savvy
Portugese: coconut, alligator, veranda
Italian: diva, paparazzi, umbrella
Arabic: alcohol, algebra, algorithm, apricot „Without Rhyme or Reason“
– French phrase INTERNET/SMS/MULTIMEDIA ENGLISH The Washington Post Neologism Competition Transformations of the English Language

Muffin top Cultural Neologisms Chillax Cultural Neologisms

Brangelina Cultural Neologisms NEOLOGISMS IMHO
In My Humble Opinion
PCM
Please Call Me
TCR
Take Care INTERNET/SMS/MULTIMEDIA ENGLISH SMS
Short Message Service
LOL
Laughing Out Loud
ROFL
Rolling On Floor Laughing
BFF
Best Friends Forever INTERNET/SMS/MULTIMEDIA ENGLISH Trademarks that are Genericized Coffee (n.): the person upon whom one coughs.
Flabbergasted (adj.) appaled over how much weight you have gained.
Abdicate (v.): to give up all hope of ever having a flat stomach.
Esplanade (v.): to attempt an explanation while drunk
Willy-nilly (adj.): impotent.
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