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Food Safety

The safety, quality, and nutritional value of the food we eat is of fundamental importance to our health and well-being.

Lindsay Abrigo

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Food Safety

Who's at Risk? Long-term Effects Foodborne Illness in the U.S. What is Food Safety? By Lindsay Abrigo & Nicholas Trado FOOD SAFETY Kidney failure Food safety encompasses actions aimed at ensuring that all food is as safe as possible (World Health Organization, 2013). It also refers to the conditions and practices for handling, preparing, and storing food to prevent contamination and foodborne illnesses (MedlinePlus, 2012). Food safety policies and actions, according to WHO (2013), need to cover the entire food chain, from production to consumption. Food safety is a public health priority. Millions of people fall ill every year and many die as a result of eating unsafe food. Serious outbreaks of foodborne diseases have been documented on every continent in the past decade, and in many countries, rates of illnesses are increasing significantly (WHO, 2013). Foodborne Illness: any infectious illness transmitted in food [ ] Each year, millions of people in the United States get sick from contaminated food. Symptoms of food poisoning include upset stomach, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration. Each year, Americans get sick from foodborne disease 1 out of 6 and die as a result. 3,000 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013 Reducing foodborne illness by just 10% 5 million would keep people a year from getting sick. Causes of Foodborne Illnesses The bacteria and viruses that cause the most illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States include: Salmonella Norovirus Campylobacter E. coli Listeria Clostridium perfringens Taxoplasma gondii: In the United States, the most common foodborne parasites are protozoa, roundworms, and tapeworms. The foodborne parasite that causes the most hospitalizations and deaths in this country is Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis. Sources: Contaminated eggs, poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk or juice, cheese, contaminated raw fruits and veggies, spices, and nuts. Sources: Produce, shellfish, ready-to-eat foods touched by infected workers, or any other foods contaminated with or feces from an infected person. Sources: Raw and undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and contaminated water. Sources: Contaminated foods, especially undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized milk or juice, cheeses made raw milk, raw fruits and veggies, and contaminated water. Sources: Ready-to-eat deli meats and hot dogs, refrigerated meat spreads, unpasteurized milk and dairy products, cheeses made from raw milk, and refrigerated smoked seafood. Sources: Beef, poultry, and gravies. Sources: Contaminated meat that is raw or not well cooked, utensils and cutting boards and an organ transplant or blood transfusion from an infected person. of Food Poisoning Chronic arthritis Brain & Nerve damage Approximately 48 million Americans get sick from food poisoning. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), occurs when an infection in digestive system produces toxic substances that destroy red blood cells, causing kidney injury May occur after infection with some kinds of E. coli bacteria HUS most common in children & most common cause of acute kidney failure in children Small number of people with Shigella or Salmonella infection develop pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and painful urination, called reactive arthritis People with Campylobacter infections may also develop chronic arthritis Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, the inflammation of membranes surrounding the brain If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria, long-term consequences may include mental retardation, Guillain-Barre syndrome, a disorder where the immune system attacks the body's own nerves seizures, paralysis, blindness, or deafness may be triggered by Campylobacter infection, and can result in paralysis E. coli Shigella or Salmonella Campylobacter Listeria Listeria Campylobacter - CDC, FoodSafety.gov, & MedlinePlus, 2013 Most will recover without lasting effects from their illness, but for some the effects can be devastating and even deadly. Pregnant Women Older Adults People with Chronic Illnesses When a woman is pregnant, her immune system is weakened, which makes it harder to fight off harmful microorganisms in food. At the same time, an unborn baby's immune system is not developed enough to fight off dangerous bacteria.
In addition, certain toxins in food, such as mercury, can damage an unborn baby’s developing nervous system. As we age, our immune system and other organs in our bodies become less effective in recognizing and ridding the body of microorganisms that cause foodborne illness. If an older person contracts a foodborne illness, there is a great chance that the effects will be serious or even deadly. If you have a chronic illness such as AIDS, cancer, or diabetes, the illness and sometimes its treatments can weaken your immune system. Similarly, if you are a transplant recipient, you take drugs that you take to prevent your body from rejecting the new organ. These drugs also prevent your immune system from attacking dangerous microorganisms in food. Clean 4 Simple Steps to keep Food Safe Separate Cook Chill Wash hands for AT LEAST 20 seconds Wash surfaces and utensils after each use Wash fruits and veggies Washing raw meat and poultry can actually help bacteria spread, because DO NOT wash meat, poultry, or eggs! their juices may splash onto (and contaminate!) your sink and countertops. Watch the video below to learn more "clean" tips for preventing food poisoning. Properly washing your hands, utensils, and surfaces can prevent the spread of illness-causing bacteria from spreading to your food and your family. Use separate cutting boards and plates for produce and for meat, poultry, seafood, & eggs Keep meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs separate from all other foods at the store and at home in the fridge Even after you have cleaned your hands and surfaces thoroughly, raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs can still spread illness-causing bacteria, so keeping them separate is very important. Watch the video below to learn more "separate" tips for preventing food poisoning. Food poisoning multiplies the quickest in the "DANGER ZONE" between 40 degrees and 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Use a food thermometer Keep food hot after cooking Microwave food thoroughly Watch the video below to learn more "cook" tips for preventing food poisoning. Watch the video below to learn more "chill" tips for preventing food poisoning. Illness-causing bacteria can grow in perishable foods within 2 hours unless they are refrigerated. Promptly and properly refrigerating foods can keep your family safe from food poisoning at home. Refrigerate perishable foods within 2 hours Never thaw or marinate foods on the counter Know when to throw food out http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/SelectedHealthTopics/UCM312787.pdf Click the link below to download! Food Safety for Pregnant Women Food Safety for Older Adults http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/SelectedHealthTopics/UCM312790.pdf Click the link below to download! http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/SelectedHealthTopics/UCM312762.pdf Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS Food Safety for People with Cancer Food Safety for People with Diabetes http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/SelectedHealthTopics/UCM312761.pdf http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/SelectedHealthTopics/UCM312796.pdf Click the link below to download! Click the link below to download! Click the link below to download! Role of the Government Government agencies are responsible for setting food safety standards, conducting inspections, ensuring that standards are met, and maintaining a strong enforcement program to deal with those who do not comply with standards. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The USDA protects and promotes food, agriculture, natural resources and related issues. The department is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry and eggs. The FDA is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The administration regulates non-meat products including seafood, produce, milk, canned foods, and infant formula. The EPA is responsible for protecting human health and to safeguard the natural environment – air, water and land – upon which life depends. The agency also regulates pesticides and waste management. The CDC is responsible for creating the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health – through health promotion, prevention of disease, injury & disability, and preparedness for new health threats, including providing food recall information. http://www.usda.gov http://www.epa.gov http://www.fda.gov http://www.cdc.gov The USDA, FDA, EPA, and CDC are the U.S. government agencies that regulate food safety. This video explains how the new law makes prevention from farm to table the basis of food safety and describes how preventing problems before they occur is critical given today's complex, global food supply and the emerging pathogens that are especially threatening to vulnerable populations. The video also explains how the law applies to both domestic and imported foods, and to be successful requires that everyone in the food production process understands and accepts their responsibility. The FSMA was signed into law by President Obama on January 4, 2011. The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) It aims to ensure the U.S. food supply is safe by shifting the focus of federal regulators from responding to contamination to preventing it. Watch the video below to learn more about the Food Safety Modernization Act (FMSA). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations http://typo3.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/agns/pdf/empres/brochure_en.pdf EMPRES Food Safety Click the link to download! Emergency Prevention System for Food Safety (EMPRES Food Safety) EMPRES aims to prevent and control food safety risks by focusing on early detection, early warning, and rapid response to food safety emergencies at global, regional, and local levels. Access the brochure below to learn more about the tasks of the EMPRES Food Safety program. Food safety is our first line of defense in preventing disease. By washing, handling, separating, preparing, and storing our food properly, we help eliminate illness-causing pathogens. As we continue to investigate and improve safety standards, we increase the ability to prevent further foodborne outbreaks. References Beran, G. W. (1999). Food safety. In AccessScience. Retrieved from http://www.accessscience.com/content.aspx?id=YB990425

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2013). Food safety. Retrieved from website: http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/

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Food and Drug Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2013). Overview of the FSMA proposed rules on produce safety standards and preventive controls for human food. Retrieved from website: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FSMA/ucm334120.htm FoodSafety.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2013). Causes of food poisoning. Retrieved from website: http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/index.html

FoodSafety.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2013). Food poisoning: Who's at risk. Retrieved from website: http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/risk/index.html

FoodSafety.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2013). Food poisoning: How government responds. Retrieved from website: http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/responds/index.html

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Langer, A. J., Ayers, T., Grass, J., Lynch, M., Angulo, F., & Mahon, B. F. (2012). Nonpasteurized dairy products, disease outbreaks, and state laws—united states, 1993–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 385-391. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/3/pdfs/11-1370.pdf MedlinePlus. U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, National Institutes of Health. (2013). Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from U.S. National Library of Medicine website: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html

MedlinePlus. U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, National Institutes of Health. (2012). Food safety. Retrieved from U.S. National Library of Medicine website: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002434.htm

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Partnership for Food Safety Education. (2010). Least wanted foodborne pathogens. Retrieved from http://www.fightbac.org/about-foodborne-illness/least-wanted-pathogens

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World Health Organization. (2013). Strategies in surveillance and control. Retrieved from World Health Organization website: http://www.who.int/foodborne_disease/strategies/en/ References (continued) References (continued) after they have contact with raw meat, feces from an infected cat, contaminated water, Parasites range in size from tiny, single-celled
organisms to worms visible to the naked eye. Kitchen Companion http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Kitchen_Companion.pdf This handbook contains all the basic information you need to know about food safety. Click on the link below to download!
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