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Transcript of Timeline
Theories of values of human beings,individual,collective. usually includes critical thinking and evidence.
Leon Battista Alberti
Naturalism:a philosophical viewpoint according to which everything arises from natural properties and causes, and supernatural or spiritual explanations are excluded or discounted.
The creation of Adam
The cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome.
The last supper
Mannerism and Baroque
Mannerism is a period of European art,when the Baroque style began to replace it
Lady in a fur wrap
Sir Issac Newton
People wanted to revival of old greek and roman text because recycled knowledge through painting. Rediscovering lost things
The dramatic facade of Sant ' Andrea, (1471) built to Alberti's design after his death. He grasped the nature column and lintel architecture from the visual rather than the structural. Was concern about the social effect of architecture.
The printing press allowed writers to print many copies of their books efficiency and faster. Since it was easier to publish books it help grow and spread knowledge around fast.
1.Heavenly motions are uniform, eternal, and circular or compounded of several circles (epicycles).
2.The center of the universe is near the Sun.
3.Around the Sun, in order, are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the fixed stars.
4.The Earth has three motions: daily rotation, annual revolution, and annual tilting of its axis.
5.Retrograde motion of the planets is explained by the Earth's motion.
6.The distance from the Earth to the Sun is small compared to the distance to the stars.
1.discovered the law of pendulum
2. Galileo revised the spyglass to create a telescope
3. supported Copernicus theory of the solar system, which was against the church beliefs.
-Laws of motion
-law of universal gravitation. Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
-Illustration of a dispersive prism decomposing white light into the colors of the spectrum, as discovered by Newton-reflecting telescope
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.
The peace of Augsburg
The peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 . These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination.The treaties resulted from the big diplomatic congress, thereby initiating a new system of political order in central Europe, later called Westphalian sovereignty, based upon the concept of co-existing sovereign states. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power. A prejudice was established against interference in another nation's domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order.
Machiavelli's The Prince
The prince is a16 century political treatise Machiavelli. The Prince is claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning how to consider politics and ethics.
Although it is relatively short, the treatise is the most remembered of Machiavelli's works and the one most responsible for bringing the word "Machiavellian" into usage as a pejorative. It also helped make "Old Nick" an English term for the devil, and even contributed to the modern negative connotations of the words "politics" and "politician" in western countries. In terms of subject matter it overlaps with the much longer Discourses on Livy, which was written a few years later. In its use of near-contemporary Italians as examples of people who perpetrated criminal deeds for politics, another lesser-known work by Machiavelli which The Prince has been compared to is the Life of Castruccio Castracani.
Secular political Theorists
English civil war
Competition between monarch and nobles for power
Secular-not subject to or bound by religious rule; not belonging to or living in others order.
Diplomacy-the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations
He believed in Religious unity should be preserved, and religion should not be debated, since disputations damage religion and cast doubt upon it.Bodin held a superstitious belief about the existence of angels and demons; his works cover topics such as demonology and witchcraft, and include passages on the topics of astrology and numerology.
In an era characterized by almost endless warfare, he led his armies as king from 1611 (at age 16) until his death in battle in 1632 while leading a charge—as Sweden rose from the status of a mere regional power and run-of-the-mill kingdom to one of the great powers of Europe and a model of early modern era government. Within only a few years of his accession, Sweden had become the largest nation in Europe after Russia and Spain. Some have called him the "father of modern warfare", or the first great modern general.
King Charles 1
New Model Army
Court of Star Chamber
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658)was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces.
He dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–50. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country – bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics (a significant minority in England and Scotland but the vast majority in Ireland), and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651.
The Fronde (French pronunciation: was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The king confronted the combined opposition of the princes, the nobility, the law courts (parliaments), and most of the French people, and yet won out in the end.
The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde of the parliaments and the Fronde of the nobles. The timing of the outbreak of the Fronde des parlements, directly after the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that ended the Thirty Years War, was significant. Louis XIV, impressed as a young ruler with the experience of the Fronde, came to reorganize French fighting forces under a stricter hierarchy whose leaders ultimately could be made or unmade by the King. Moote argues that Cardinal Mazarin blundered into the crisis but came out well ahead at the end. The Fronde represented the final attempt of the French nobility to do battle with the king, and they were humiliated. The long-term result was to strengthen Royal authority, but to weaken the economy. The Fronde facilitated the emergence of absolute monarchy. The word fronde means sling, which Parisian crowds used to smash the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin. So the slang represents how globalization and colonialism shaped/affected their lives and/or perspective,values, and believe.
Monarchical control-to have complete authority to rule state, usually controlled by Kings who ruled by divine right.
Protestant and Catholic Reformations
The protestant and Catholic reformations was Luther trying reform the roman catholic church with his book the Ninety five Theses.Luther started by criticizing the selling of indulgences, insisting the pope had no right over purgatory and that the catholic doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundations in the gospel. The attack spread to catholic practices. The printing press allowed for the rapid dissemination of religious materials, it spread much faster. The roman catholic church tried to protect themselves from the Protestant Reformation. Leaving north Europe with the exception of Ireland influenced by the protestantism. While the southern part of Europe remained roman cathloc.Central Europe was a site of a fierce conflict, generating/escalating The Thirty Years' war. which at the end left in a massive devastation.
What is Christian humanism and how did it differ from previous Christian beliefs?
Lutheran and Calvinist beliefs
Catholic abuse that Calvin and Luther were critical of
Christian humanism- a philosophy advocating the self-fulfillment of man within the framework of Christian principles.
It differs because the christian beliefs view god as this perfect and holy person. While the christian humanism is giving them more of a realistic human characteristics such as flaws.
Sir Thomas More was more opposed to the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of martin Luther and William Tyndale. He wrote Utopia which talks about the political system of a ideal and imaginary island nation. Thomas opposed the king's separation from the catholic church, refusing to accept him as supreme head of the church of England.
Lutheran believed in the trinity and rank doesn't matter.Doing good deeds means you go to heaven and doing bad deeds sent you to hell. As long as your faithful to the church.Scripture is more important than Tradition.Human beings are saved by faith alone and not by any works they do.
Calvinist believed that life is per-determined, when your born you faith has been determined, what happens after death. Also that religion supersedes laws. Science wasn't a big influence to him.The supreme power of God and the salvation of the elect by God's grace alone, basically the theory of predestination. The "elected" are known as "saints" in the Calvinist faith. Calvin denied that human beings were capable of free will. Calvin also stated that the writings of the scriptures are to be taken literally.
People were becoming educated, and were exposed to new ideas about human dignity and rights. The Church itself had become sinful, and in many ways did not live up to Christian expectations. Selling Indulgences: The Church, in order to raise money to build St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, had begun to allow people to purchase forgiveness in advance.Corrupt Clergy: The clergy of the Church were corrupt and not living up to Christian Standards. They were accused of simony (bribes), nepotism (hiring relatives), and having concubines (mistresses).Luther said the Church's sale of Indulgences was wrong
State action to control religion and morality
How they challenged the monarch's control of religious institutions
French Wars of Religion
Allowing religious Pluralism
Was established in 1478 by catholic monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. The Inquisition was originally intended in large part to ensure the opinion/beliefs of those who converted from judaism and islam. The regulation of the faith of the newly converted was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1501 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave Spain. Various motives have been proposed such as increasing political authority, weaken opposition,suppressing converses,profiting from confiscation of the property of convicted heretics,reducing social tensions, and protecting the kingdom from the danger of a fifth column.
Huguenots were French Protestant inspired by the writing of John Calvin(Jean Calvin) in the 1530s. As Huguenots gained influence and more openly displayed their faith,Catholic hostility grew, in spite of increasingly liberal political concessions and edicts of toleration from the French crown. A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the Wars of Religion. This granted the Huguenots substantial religious, political and military autonomy.
The St.Bartholomew Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassination,followed by a wave of Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots, during the French wars of Religion.The massacre also marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion. The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file, and those who remained were increasingly radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres."Throughout Europe, it "printed on Protestant minds the indelible conviction that Catholicism was a bloody and treacherous religion".
The Wars of the Three Henry's was the eighth and final conflict in the series of civil wars in France known as the Wars of Religion. It was a three-way war. The war was instigated by Philip of Spain to keep his enemy, France, from interfering with the Spanish army in the Netherlands and his planned invasion of England. With Henry III's death, the coalition broke up. Many Catholic royalists were unwilling to serve the Protestant Henry IV, and the army retreated from Paris.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.As the name of the worldview according to which one's religion is not the sole and exclusive source of truth, and thus the acknowledgment that at least some truths and true values exist in other religions.As acceptance of the concept that two or more religions with mutually exclusive truth claims are equally valid.The understanding that the exclusive claims of different religions turn out, upon closer examination, to be variations of universal truths that have been taught since time immemorial. Which Poland fits into.
mercantilism-believing that trade accumulate profit.Also know as commercialism.
Adriaan van Oss was a spanish missionaries, promoting the Christian beliefs upon Natives.By converting the natives, they conquer its state. Unlike other European countries such as Netherlands,England. The Spanish were so committed to converting the New World. The natives contribute the christian belief into their religion. The conquers destroyed any religious item.Even though the spanish force their language like their religion. The natives adapt to their new language.
The Protolan was a atlas used during the Middle Age.
Providing sailors direction and charts.Containg rhumb lines, location of ports and also coastal features. Some sailors used these for ship repairs.This allowed for acquire docking/sailing. Sailors were able to make much more efficient stops and avoid danger near by the coast.
Gun and gun powered changed military technique. It allowed for a more powerfully hit and can do much damage from a distance. The spanish conquistadors vs. the Inca is a great example on how the gun over came tradition weapons. The gun increased the amount of kills ion a short period of time.The weapon was more efficient during battle.
Western Europe gaining territory over North America
Smallpox is an infections disease. It was first introduced by the arrival of the Europeans. Europeans carried this infections disease with them to the new world. The smallpox spread rapidly and was able to kill many natives. Since they have never dealt with this disease, there was a more devastating impact. The disease wiped-out a lot of the population.
Western Europe was able to use military force upon other territory. They had an advantage over others because of their efficient weapons such as gun powder,guns, steel, and horses.Since they were though as gods, they were able to apply rules that were more of an advantage to them.The agreements were more favorable to the Europeans. Their power allowed them to stay in control. Using cruel methods to keep them in power.
In English social and economic history, enclosure is the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to the owner, and it ceases to be land for commons. In England and Wales the term is also used for the process that ended the ancient system of arable farming in open fields. Under enclosure, such land is fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to one or more owners. The process of enclosure began to be a widespread feature of the English agricultural landscape during the 16th century. By the 19th century, unenclosed commons had become largely restricted to rough pasture in mountainous areas and to relatively small parts of the lowlands.
Enclosure could be accomplished by buying the ground rights and all common rights to accomplish exclusive rights of use, which increased the value of the land. The other method was by passing laws causing or forcing enclosure, such as Parliamentary enclosure. The latter process of enclosure was sometimes accompanied by force, resistance, and bloodshed, and remains among the most controversial areas of agricultural and economic history in England. Marxist and neo-Marxist historians argue that rich landowners used their control of state processes to appropriate public land for their private benefit.
The process of enclosure created a landless working class that provided the labor required in the new industries developing in the north of England. For example: “In agriculture the years between 1760 and 1820 are the years of wholesale enclosure in which, in village after village, common rights are lost”. Thompson argues that “Enclosure (when all the sophistication are allowed for) was a plain enough case of class robbery.”
The employment for migrants is quite unfair. Since these are new individuals stepping into the unknown world . That individual is leading in this world with blind vision. Long hours and low wages. With unfair rights and no freedom to voice out their opinion or join a union.
While education flourished in the Middle Ages for men, it was not generally encouraged for women. Those from the nobility or wealthier classes were sometimes educated either privately, or in the home schools that were established for male members of the family.The subject of education for women, however, was a hotly debated issue throughout the Middle Ages. As education was directly connected with the church it was inevitable that the church's views of women should have led predominated.
Women's intellect and education
A sport or contest (as hunting or cockfighting) involving bloodshed.Any sport that involves animals being killed or hurt to make the people watching or taking part feel excitement.Bloodsport includes coursing, combat sports such as cockfighting and dog fighting, or other activities of human-animal blood sport. These usually involve blood being drawn, and often result in the death of one or more animals. This is spending time away from business or work.
Charivari is the term for a French folk custom in which the community gave a noisy, discordant mock serenade, also pounding on pots and pans, at the home of newlyweds. The loud, public ritual evolved to a form of social coercion, for instance, to force an as-yet-unmarried couple to wed. This type of social custom arose independently in many rural village societies, for instance also in England, Italy, Wales or Germany, where it was part of the web of social practices by which the small communities enforced their standards.
The community used noise making and parades to demonstrate disapproval, most commonly of "unnatural" marriages and remarriages, such as a union between an older widower and much younger woman, or the too early remarriage by a widow or widower. Villages also used charivari in cases of adulterous relationships, wife beaters, and unmarried mothers. In some cases, the community disapproved of any remarriage by older widows or widowers. Charivari is the original French word, and in Canada it is used by both English and French speakers. Chivaree became the common spelling in Ontario, Canada. In the United States, the term shivaree is more common