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Guideline for Language Classroom Instruction
Transcript of Guideline for Language Classroom Instruction
Graham Crook - Craig Chaudron
2. Language Presentation
2.1 Meta-Planning for Lesson Objectives
-depends on the objectives a teacher has in
mind for lesson
2.2 Modalities (Materials, AV)
2.3 Rule Presentation and Explaination
- focus on form (Norris and Ortega 2000)
the teacher is often instructed to have the students work with the dialogue, having the class repeat the dialogue in unison, possibly moving next to prtial memorization.
Classes would be to have students pair off and read the dialogue aloud while the teacher circulates and check individuals performance.
Art of making learning easy for students
Letting go of control in the classroom
A good facilitator recognizes that students are their own best teachers and the primary role of teacher is to make easy or facilitate the learning of students
A major role of the instructor is to arrange matters so the material presented gets used and thereby learned.
It is obvious that teachers still encounter many areas of ignorance where preferably there should be knowledge. Teachers should know what relatively firm information does exist, and where there is room for study. This should help their decision making. As the SL profession develops, more teachers are qualified to conduct their own research or to work together with researchers. This will help in informing people through the teacher's combined use of knowledge and educated professional reflection.
-First , elements of the language or its use, or
skills such as learning strategies, must be
brought into the classroom and presented or
-Second , that which as been selected and
present must be learned :the teacher has to
arrange matters and events to bring this
-Third, the teacher must provide knowledge of
results ,that is, correction or feedback, to the
When a second language
is taught a number of major
steps must be taken .
The major resource is the
Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction
Graham Crookes - Craig Chaudron
"Present - Practice - Evaluate"
In addition, other teaching aids fall into two categories: Nontechnical aids and Technical
The former include the chalkboard, realia, flashcards, magazine pictures, and charts.
The latter include the overhead projector,
audio and video recorder, CD-ROM, and
For the untrained teacher, a good
textbook can stand in for a syllabus
and training program, while in
experienced teacher can use the text
as an aid, adopting sime parts
(Stevick 1971), or can even dispense
with it completely.
The term TASK has been used to discuss those less-controlled activities which produce realistic use of the SL (Crooked and Gass, 1993a , 1993b)
We need, therefore, to give some consideration to such matters as the
overall organization of the classroom,
the nature and dynamics of teacher-student, and Student-student interaction,
the interface between these matters and the selection of classroom learning tasks.
4.1 Class Organization
4.1 Class Organization
The dominant view of second language classroom processes today favors student-centered learning instead of the traditional teacher-dominated classroom (Nunan 1988b).
In general, the most appropriate and effective classroom organization is pair and group work.
Group work has been shown to result in many advantages for SL learners:
learners speak more frequently and with longer stretches of speech;
they produce more interactional modifications directed at one another .
they utilize a wider range of language.
An especially important effect related to cultural differences is that the observable shyness to speak in larger classes tend to disappear in small group work.
4.2 Aspects of the Teacher-Fronted Class
Two general characteristics of teacher-student interaction:
1. Question Types
SL teachers ask more display questions (those to which the questioner already knows the answer) than do ordinary NSs talking to NNSs. The latter usually use referential questions (those to which the questioner does not already know the answer) .
questions you ask to see if the person you are speaking to know the answer.
normally means questions teachers ask learners to see if they understand or remember something.
2. Wait - Time
Wait-time refers to the length of the pause which follows a teacher's question to an individual student or to the whole class. This lasts until either a student answers or the teacher adds a comment or poses another question. It can also apply to the period between one student's answer to a question and the response of the teacher or another student.
The time that you wait before calling a student in class.
When wait-time is increased to three to five seconds, there is improvement in learning and in the quality of classroom discourse.
5. CORRECTION AND FEEDBACK
Correction requires that:
Teacher recognizes what kind of error the learner made
Is able to provide an accurate and detailed linguistic analysis of the error
Is able to explain why this is wrong
Is able to provide a correct replacement for the error
There are four types of correction
GROUP CORRECTION – with group activities, students notes mistakes for a feedback session later. It provides opportunity to learners notice language without the interruption by teacher but unfortunately this also means that errors (unfamiliar language, or language above class’ level of ability) will remain uncorrected.
SELF – CORRECTION – students should correct their English more frequently. Students may correct themselves in the middle of a conversation.
STUDENT - TO - STUDENT CORRECTION – similar from group correction . The only difference is that the students works in pairs.
TEACHER – TO - STUDENT CORRECTION – in early stages of the lesson when students first practice the target language they haven’t been familiar with the material so they can’t judge what’s right and wrong. They need a direct feedback from you.
Recast - is a form of feedback where the teacher says something with the purpose of helping a student notice his or her mistakes and repair it on his or her own.
Discourse model of teachers' vocabulary and grammar explanation (Yee and Wagner 1984)
A forming stage, a focusing stage, the explanation itself and the restatement.
Teacher: Can we say "these" in a tag? Focus + solicit
Student: You can't use the word "these" in a tag Explanation + explicit rule
Teacher: What do we need to use? solicit
Taking functional approach to analysis of rules and explanation, (Faerch 1986)
1. Problem-Formulation 2. Induction with the teacher eliciting student opinion
3. teacher's Rule of Formulation 4. Exemplification by the teacher or the students
3.1 Subsections of Lessons - The Activity
Information and Motivation Phase
Border Line Activity
Information And Motivation Phase
Input/ Control Phase
Role Play demonstration
Dialogue/ Narrative Presentation
Dialogue/ Narrative Recitation
Cued/ Narrative Dialogue
Information transfer Information exchange
Role Play Report
Composition Problem Solving
Task types and Parameters
Robinson (2000) includes those factors that affects learner's cognitive resources for attention and processing information and therefore affect the accuracy, and complexity of their production
examined with respect to their effects on the amount of learners production, interaction and feedback.
These includes learners motivation, anxiety, confidence, aptitute level of attained proficiency in the L2, and the intelligence.