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cole and scribner 1947
Transcript of cole and scribner 1947
The United States of America and Liberia (Kpelle) The Role of Schooling on Memory
Cross-Cultural Research The extent to which is it culture or schooling (or both) that influenced memory and categorization in the study is not entirely clear. The experimental method was used and it can help to establish cause-effect relationship, but since the independent variable was culture or schooling, it may be difficult to say anything definite about cause-effect relationships evaluation 2. Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process (for example: education, carpentered-world hypothesis, effect of video games on attention) the activity Learning Outcome the experiment Aim, Hypothesis & Procedure results 1 2 3 aim: To investigate the influences of education in the development of memory processes and strategies and free recall in children in two different cultures; the USA and the Kpelle people in Liberia hypothesis: Children with formal education have a more effective memory when responding to a free recall task than those children without any form of education. null hypothesis: The effect of formal education on children will have no influence with the performance of the free recall.Any correlation of education and performance of the free recall task will be mere coincidence or by pure chance. procedure: 1. Started by examining and observing everyday cognitive activities in Liberia to develop memory experiments with relevant tasks 2. Free Recall test: the lists of words belonged to four distinct categories:
The researchers presented the words to the participants and asked them to try to memorize all 20, and then were asked to recall in any order (free recall) 3.The second part of the experiment, the researchers presented the same objects in a meaningful manner in this case as part of a story and then were asked to recall the objects in any order 4. The results were recorded through the amount of words each child was able to remember correctly on the list results and conclusions free recall test the non-schooled participants hardly improved their performance after the age of 9 or 10
remembered around 10 items on the first trial
after 15 practice trials they improved minimally by one or two words Liberian school children performed as school children of the same age did in the USA.
used similar memory strategies- that is based on the categorical similarity of the objects. In the second part of the experiment, the non-schooled Liberian participants recalled more objects
technique used was they grouped them according to the roles they played in the story conclusions 1. children with a source of formal education whether it be in Liberia or USA are able to recall more information (words) on the free recall task than those children who have had an absence of schooling in their lives 2.people learn to remember in ways that are relevant for their everyday lives, these do not have to mirror the activities that cognitive psychologists use to investigate mental processes the analysis analysis of information
Cole and Scribner (1974) The Role of Schooling on Memory Cross-Cultural Study 1. Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis (for example, mental representations guide behaviour, mental processes can be scientifically investigated) learning memory strategies schooling dependent on education process of memory impacts (social & cultural factor) (cognitive processes) education memory strategies enable us to form efficent ways in which we can remember the information need to give the material a form in which enables you to remember it increase recalling process this process of encoding more information using memory strategies allows one to increase amount remembered encoding process Cole and Scribner results suggest that the environment in which people live leads to specific cultural and social demands that influence the way they process information people learn to remember in ways that are relevant for their everyday lives Cognitive ability is universal, cognitive skills are not,
The ability to memorize is an etic (hardware) while the specific strategies and forms of remembering so it is an emic (software) the evaluation supporting studies Rogoff and Waldell (1982)
Greenfield and burner (1966)