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# Chapter 1: Characteristics of Waves

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## Roger Cattle

on 2 November 2017

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#### Transcript of Chapter 1: Characteristics of Waves

SOUND & LIGHT
Ch. 1 - Characteristics of waves

Section 1
Vocabulary
2. Energy
3. Medium
4. Mechanical Waves
5. Vibration
6. Transverse Waves
7. Crest
8. Trough
9. Longitudinal Waves
10. Compressions
11. Rarefactions
1. Wave
Section 2 Vocabulary
1. Amplitude
2. Wavelength
3. Frequency
4. Hertz (Hz)
5. Speed
Section 3 Vocabulary
1. Reflection
2. Law of reflection
3. Refraction
4. Diffraction
5. Interference
6. Constructive interference
7. Destructive interference
8. Standing wave
9. Nodes
10. Antinodes
11. Resonance

Section 4 Vocabulary
1. Seismic waves
2. P waves
3. S waves
4. Surface waves
5. Tsunamis
6. Seismographs
W
A
V
E
S

What causes waves?
Some waves need something to travel through...
These types of waves are called MECHANICAL WAVES
2 Types of Mechanical Waves
1. TRANSVERSE =
Waves that move medium at right angles to the direction in which the waves travel.

2. LONGITUDINAL =
Waves that move the medium parallel to the direction in which the waves travel.
Which medium can send energy the fastest?
"Elephants hear well because they have big
feet."
WAVELENGTH
The lowest part of a wave.
CREST
The highest part of a wave
The distance from one crest of a wave to the next crest (or from one trough of a wave to the next trough).
AMPLITUDE
The height of a wave.
REFLECTION
When a wave hits a surface through which it cannot pass, it bounces back.
Law of Reflection
The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
REFRACTION
The bending of waves as they pass from one medium into another at an angle.
The wave changes speed in the second medium.
A disturbance that causes a vibration.
... a MEDIUM...
... such as a gas, liquid, or solid
Mechanical waves are produced when energy causes a medium to vibrate.
TROUGH
RESTING
POSITION
The line that shows an amplitude of
0
WAVE LAB
Purpose:

Hypothesis:

Materials:

Procedure:

Observations:

Conclusion:
Questions 1 & 2 on pg 10
Section 1.3
Interactions
of Waves
DIFFRACTION
The bending or spreading out of waves as they pass a barrier or move through a hole.
Interference
2 types:
Constructive
&
Destructive
CONSTRUCTIVE
INTERFERENCE:
When two waves combine to make a wave with a larger amplitude
DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE:
When the amplitudes of two waves combine with each other producing a smaller amplitude.

Standing Wave
= constructive interference
= destructive interference
Resonance
An increase in amplitude that occurs when external vibrations match an object's natural frequency.
O
V
E
R
T
O
N
E
S
WAVE LABS
TITLE: WAVE LABS
LAB NAME: 2 WORDS
OBJECTIVE: 1 FULL SENTENCE
HYPOTHESIS: 1 FULL SENTENCE / PIC
OBSERVATION: 3 BULLET POINTS / PIC
CONCLUSION: 3 FULL SENTENCES / PIC
REFRACTION
IN ACTION
OBJECTIVE: To show the effects of light waves bending as they travel through different mediums.
DIFFRACTION DEMO
OBJECTIVE: To model real life examples of how water waves can be controlled.
MAKING SENSE OF RESONANCE
OBJECTIVE: To create a visual aid that will show us what resonance is and how it effects the world around us.
WAVES are a way to move energy from one spot to another.
ENERGY
ENERGY
DISTURBANCE
Does the medium move?
= 'smushed' together part
WAVELENGTH = FROM 1 COMPRESSION TO THE VERY NEXT COMPRESSION
(OR FROM 1 RAREFACTION TO THE VERY NEXT RAREFACTION)
Higher amplitude
=
Higher energy
FREQUENCY: The number of waves that pass through a point in 1 second.

Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz)
1 Hz = 1 wave per second
Fastest = solid
Slowest = gas
Mike Riley has challenged Husker fans to have 'the wave' go around the stadium 5 times in 30 seconds this weekend.

What wave frequency would have been necessary to complete this challenge?
When I was practicing the harp over fall break, I plucked the string to play an 'A' and the string vibrated 220 times every half second.

What is the frequency
of that harp string?
wave cycles / seconds
At the beach this summer I counted how many waves hit me in 1 minute. There were 111 waves. What was the frequency?
I saw my BFF this weekend at the bowling alley. He waved at me for an hour. During that time his hand moved back and forth 5,283 times. With what frequency was he waving?
SECTION 1.2 - PROPERTIES OF WAVES
(MythBusters - Assassination attempt on Hitler)