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Soil Contamination in India: Broader Issues
Transcript of Soil Contamination in India: Broader Issues
All About India. (2012). Chromium pollution Ganges River. [Image]. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://www.all-about-india.com/Ganges-River-Pollution.html
Allianz Open Knowledge. (2013). Indian farmer maize. [Image], Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://assets.knowledge.allianz.com/img/indian_farmer_maize_z_53012.jpg
Asia Society. (2013). Indian Agriculture. [Image]. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://asiasociety.org/files/India_AgriculturalFuture02.jpg
Harvard University Arsenic Project. (n.d.). Arsenic sufferer excessive. [Image]. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://users.physics.harvard.edu/~wilson/arsenic/pictures/arsenic_project_sufferer_picture10.jpg
Intercont. (2005). Political/industrial map (India). [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.intercont.in/IndiaInfo.php
International Water Management Institute (IWMI). (2010). Woman selling vegetables. [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Out/Of/Water/images/1.image/jpg
The Permaculture Research Institute of Australia. (2008). Biomagnification. [Image]. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.permaculturenews.org/images/biomagnification.gif
Wikimedia Commons. (2008). Major crop areas of India. [Image]. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Major_crop_areas_India.png
India: Treating its Soil Like Dirt
Drivers of pollution:
Poor waste management
Industrial sector has prospered immensely
Lack of enforcement, budget constraints and ineffective monitoring.
Waste contains heavy metals, despite laws, not dealt with properly
Contamination of soil by heavy metals is of particular concern... carries risk to health, food production & the economy
Soil contamination introduces local economic strain
Poor industrial waste management causes soil degradation.
Heavy metal contamination is of primary concern.
Repercussions of contamination flow onto threaten public health, agricultural success and the Indian economy.
Waste and effluents are negligently disposed.
Dumped in water bodies
Used as crop irrigation
Heavy metals - agricultural stability adversely affected.
Agriculture is the
foundation of rural economy in India
Trade & export are affected
Affected produce = reduced marketability
Decline in Indian agro-exports
The Social and Economic Implications of Heavy Metal Soil Pollution
(All about India, 2012) & (Asia Society, 2013).
^ Permaculture Research Institute Australia, 2013
< Harvard University Arsenic Project, n.d.
Capacity to yield reduced - loss in marketability.
Farmer investments lost
Purchasing power reduced
Trade and Export
Deccan Herald, 2011
Allianz Open Knowledge, 2013
Interruption of physiological processes
Arsenic - carcinogenic, hyperkeratosis (the feet)
Lead - affects cognitive & bodily functions.
Cultivation is unsafe.
Societal Health Risks
 Parth, V., Murthy, N.N., & Saxena, P.R. (2011). Assesment of heavy metal contamination in soil around hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): natural and anthropogenic implications. E3 Journal of Environmental Research and Management 2(2), 27-34. Retrieved from http://www.e3journals.org/JERM
 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2013). The world factbook: India. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html10.1016/j.jcis.2004.04.005
 Rajaram, T., & Das, A. (2008). Water pollution by industrial effluents in India: Discharge scenarios and case for participatory ecosystem specific local regulation. Futures, 40, 58-69. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2007.06.002
 Times News Network. (2012, December 20). Solid waste management in Varanasi cries for attention. Times of India. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/
 Ramesh, S. (2013, February 7). Untreated, toxic effluents still discharged into Kalingarayan canal. The Hindu. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/
 Malik, A., Mohammad, A.Z., & Shamim, A. (2009). Genotoxic and mutagenic potential of agricultural soil irrigated with tannery effluents at Jajmau (Kanpur) India. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 57(3), 463-476. doi: 10.1007/s00244-009-9284-0
 Gangwar, K.K. (2009). Chromium uptake efficiency of Spinaea olaracae. Journal of Applied Science. Environmental Management 13(4), 71-72. Retrieved from http://www.bioonline.org.br/pdf?ja0906/
Emma Carter, Julia Shen, Erin Wilson & Shakti Sivakumar
Heavy Metals and Plants
Plants can uptake & accumulate heavy metals in their edible parts
Copper in rice plant (right) - deformities, toxicity
(The Nature Education Knowledge Project, 2011).
 Pandey, R., Pandey. J., & Shubhashish, K. (2012). Dietary intake of pollutant aerosols via vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 76, 200-208. doi: 10.1016/jecoenv.2011.10.004
 Tiwari, K.K., Singh, N.K., Patel, M.D., Tiwari, M.R., & Rai, U.N. (2011). Metal contamination of soil and translocation in vegetables growing under industrial wastewater irrigated field of Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74(6), 1670-1677. doi: 10.1016/jecoenv.2011.04.029
 World Health Organisation. (2013). Water-related Diseases. Retrieved 12th April, 2013 from http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/lead/en/
 Marietta College. 2002. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/2bioma95.html
 World Bank. (2012). India. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/india
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 (India). Retrieved from http://www.moef.nic.in/legis/water/wat1.html
Central Pollution Control Board. 2008. Industry specific standards. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://cpcb.nic.in/Industry_Specific_Standards.php