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Coordination and Response - Biology Form 5 Chapter 3

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Fatin Syaz

on 15 February 2013

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Transcript of Coordination and Response - Biology Form 5 Chapter 3

& Response Pathway in detecting responding to changes
inn EXTERNAL environment Stimulus The need of organisms to
be sensitive to changes Chapter 3 External environment Light Taste Pressure Sound Temperature touch Internal environment Blood osmotic level Osmotic pressure
of blood pH of tissue fluid affect affect LIVING ORGANISMS stimulus Chemicals in air Response changes in environment that cause response in body examples light Sound Chemicals in food temperature receptors pressure touch pain action taken by an effector in response to the impulses received examples sight hearing smell taste warm, hot, cold pressure texture pain Receptors Central nervous system Effector (muscle/gland) brings about a response Appropriate RESPONSE afferent nerve efferent nerve nerve impulse travels along nerve impulse travels along Pathway in detecting & responding to changes in INTERNAL environment Stimulus (above normal) stimulus (below normal) Normal condition (norm) Normal condition (norm) negative feedback negative feedback corrective mechanism corrective mechanism Coordination act of making parts of something work together in an efficient & organised way means coordinating system Nervous system endocrine system example eating requires muscles coordination:
-to get the food into the mouth
-to cause chew, swallow & peritalsis
-the coordination of glands in secreting saliva & digestive juice at the right time Role of nervous system It is a communication network controls and coordinates functions throughout the body + receives info from receptors then transmits and interprets it

+ formulate appropriate responses to be sent the effector organs Organisation of the nervous system Nervous system Central nervous system Peripheral nervous sytem Afferent nerves
(carry impulses TOWARDS the CNS) Efferent nerves
(carry impulses AWAY from CNS) Structure of the brain Cerebrum Cerebellum receives info from muscles, joints, tendons & ears to maintain the posture / balance of body medulla oblongata relays info between spinal cord & body controls automatic reactions in body (heartbeat etc) control reflex center of heart rate, blood pressure, peritalsis, vomitting, swallowing, sneezing Hypothalamus controls physical expression of emotions coordination center for the autonomic nervous system Centre of intelligence, memory, language & consciousness Pituitary gland Produces hormones Thalamus Process sensory impulses before relay them to cerebrum perceives pain & of pleasure regulates the pituitary gland assoociated w haemotasis, control of hunger/thirt/water balance, body temp,endocrine hormone system Functions of spinal cord relays nerve impulses into & out of the brain contains neural pathway for reflexes processes certain types of sensory infomation & sends out responses via efferent neurones Neurones Efferent neurone (motor neurone) Transmits impulses from CNS to effectors Afferent neurone (sensory neurone) Transmit nerve impulses from receptors to CNS Interneurone Transmits nerve impulses from afferent neurones to efferent neurones Mode of transmission of info along neurone - known as nerve impulse wave of positive charges that travel along the axon thru the sypnatic terminal -neurone will not transmit an impulse unless if the stimulation is strong enough -once the magnitude/size of stimulation reaches a threshold level, a full sized impulse is generated to travel along axon Pathway of information from receptors to effectors Sypnase Role of Transmit info from one cell to another Causes nerve impulses to travel only in one direction Types of nervous actions Voluntary action involuntary action involves skeletal muscles
eg: raises hand to grab stuffs involves skeletal muscles
eg: knee jerk involves smooth muscles, cardiac muscles or glands
eg: normal blood pressure THE ROLE OF HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM Transmission of info in (afferent neurone) Sensory areas of cerebral cortex motor area of cerebral cortex (efferent neurone of spinal nerve) arm muscle contracts to raise arm (or skin) Transmission of info in Reflex actions cranial reflexes spinal reflexes brought about by nerve impulses travelling thru medulla oblongata brought impulses travelling thru spinal cord arc nervous pathaway consisting of receptor, sensory neurone, interneurone, motor neurone & effector Knee jerk reflex arc enable organisms to move, feel pain & taste adjust to changes in enrionment protect organism from harm regulate internal environment by haemostasis brain spinal cord cerebrum cerebellum brainstem medulla oblongata pons Brainstem Interprets info from receptors controls movement in voluntary activities control reflex action thinking walking breathing peritalsis Diseases related to nervous system ROLE OF HORMONES IN HUMAN Hormones -chemical subtances secreted by endocrine glands into blood

-transported to target cells/organs where it induces specific physiological response Endocrine system ductless glands that secrete hormones why is it necessary? works together & complements the nervous system Some physiological processses are not directly regulated by neuron system growth menstrual cycle secondary sex characteristics (voice) examples example nervous sytem inhibits / stimulates the release of hormones while some hormoens inhibit or promote the generation of nerve impulses Pituitary gland hormones Antidiuretic (ADH) Follicle-stimulating (FSH) Luteinising (LH) Tyroid-stimulating (TSH) Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water from tubules Stimulates productions of matured egg & sperms Stimulates - ovulation & corpus luteum formation in females
- prod. of sex hormones in males growth (GH) synthesis & release thryoxine protein sysnthesis & growth Thyroid gland thyroxine hormone regulates body metabolism Helps in normal physical & mental development Adrenal gland Adrenaline Aldosterone hormones prepares the body in dangerous situation
-increases heart rate, breathing rate Regulates the reabsorption of sodium ions in kidneys Pancreas Insulin Glucagon Regulates blood sugar level Excess glucose to glycogen in liver & muscle cells Lower the glucose level in blood Increases glucose level in blood Breakdown of glycogen to glucose hormones Ovary Oestrogen Progesterone - Repair uterus lining after menstruation

-Stimulates development of female secondary sexual characteristics Maintain the thickness of uterine wall for embryo hormones Testis Testosterone Sperm production development of secondary sexual characteristics in males hormone Regulation of hormone secretion by another hormone by nervous system by level of certain substances High thyroxine level TSH Thyroxine Low thyroxine level TSH Thyroxine inhibits inhibits stimulates stimulates -Hypothalamus receives nerve impulses from receptor. Then, it stimulates pituitary gland to release ADH

-Involved in stimulation of adrenal gland to release adrenalin glucose
(in blood) glycogen
(in liver) Glucagon (by pancreas) insulin When increases When decreases Involvement of both nervous system & endochrine system FIGHT or FLIGHT situation Nerve impulses from receptor travels to brain Info is interpreted, brain sends nerve impulses to adrenal gland Adrenal gland is stimulated to release adrenaline into blood stream Hormone -increases the heartbeat rate
- Blood pressure increases
-Breathe rate increases
-Stimulates glycogen to glucose, glucose level increases Energy increases to run away from snake
(flight) kill the snake (fight) OR Effect of hormonal imbalance Growth hormonal Under secretion Over secretion - Dwarfism Abnormal increase in length Thyroxine Under secretion Over secretion - cretinism (child)
- hypothyroidism (adult)

-slow heart rate -hyperthyroitism
-metabolic rate increases

-weight loss
-nervousness Insulin under secretion over secretion -Hyperglycaemia (high glucose)

-excessive thirst
-slow healing of wounds -hypoglycaemia (low glucose)

-mood swings
-mental confusion ADH under secretion over secretion -excrete large amount of urine
-excessive thirst
-fragment urination High retention of water in body (oedema) use of in medicine To treat diabetis mellitus Use of in medicine To treat dwarfism FIN! :) By: Fatin Syazana bt Mohd Nasser
5 Jaya 2013
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