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Copy of POPULATION

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by

RAFAEL COBOS

on 21 January 2016

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Transcript of Copy of POPULATION

POPULATION
Anyone aged 16, or over, who has completed at least one hour of work in the period being measured, or are temporarily away from his or her job, such as being on holiday
POPULATION AGED UNDER 16
POPULATION AGED 16 AND OVER
EMPLOYED
It comprises employed and unemployed persons during the reference week.
ACTIVE POPULATION
It comprises all persons 16 years old and older who do not classify as employed, unemployed (i.e., looking after family, retired, students, long term sick)
INACTIVE POPULATION
All those persons aged over 16 years old who are out of work (they had no paid employment or freelance work), available for work and actively jobseeking.
UNEMPLOYED
ACTIVITY RATE
Quotient between the total number of active persons and the total population aged 16 and over.
Activity Rate =
active population / total population 16+
RATES
EMPLOYMENT RATE
Quotient between the total number of employed persons and the total population aged 16 and over.
Employment Rate=
employed population / total population 16+
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
Quotient between the total number of unemployed persons and the active population.
Unemployment Rate=
unemployed population / active population
TYPES OF
UNEMPLOYMENT

FRICTIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT
People who have left one job but are certain to begin their new job within a relatively short period of time.
STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT
It exists when broad structural changes are taking place in an economy and certain job categories or skills are eliminated from labor markets. These changes may be the result of technological change, changes in tastes or preferences for particular goods, or changes in any barriers to trade.
CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT
It occurs when individuals suffer job losses due to changes in the economic cycle (recession).
SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT
Demand for certain workers falls at certain times of the year (e.g. ski instructor in the summer or bartender by the seaside in winter)
SOLUTIONS
COSTS
EAPS
(Economically Active Population Survey)
It´s a sampling-based investigation that is performed every three months. It´s main goal is to reveal the main characteristics of the population with regard to the labour market.
The sample contains 65,000 families per quarter and approximately 180,000 persons, that is, 0.4% of the population. The EAPS follows the ILO methodology.
less income and lower standard of living
stress, anxiety, depression
relationship break-down, suicide
poverty, crime, vandalism
economy at a point within its PPF
Classical unemployment
the government should reduce the ability of unions to negotiate higher wages. The minimum wage should be reduced, or even abolished.
CLASSICAL UNEMPLOYMENT
Unemployment is caused by trade unions and government minimum wages interfering with the labour market.
KEYNESIAN UNEMPLOYMENT
As an economy moves into a period of slower growth, demand tends to fall as consumers spend less. This is likely to lead to a fall in the demand for labour, as firms cut back on production.
Frictional unemployment:
Governments should lower unemployment benefits to encourage unemployed workers to take the jobs that are available rather than allow them the chance to wait for a better one to come along.
Improving the flow of information from potencial employers to people looking for jobs.
Seasonal unemployment
Encouraging people to take different jobs in their "off season".
Structural unemployment
Spending on adult retraining programmes to help people acquire the necessary skills to match available jobs.
Education system that trains people to me more occupationally flexible.
Encouraging people to move to areas where where jobs exist.
Deregulation labour market (labour market flexibility): reducing or removing the legislation that businesses must follow in their hiring, firing, and employment practices.
Keynesian unemployment
The government can intervene to bring about an increase in demand through the use of fiscal (public spending) or monetary (interest rates) policies.
SOURCES TO MEASURE
THE LABOUR MARKET

Registered unemployed in State Public Employment Service (SEPE)
Affiliation to the social security: contributions made by employed.
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