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Dissection of Sheep Lung & Heart

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by

Nizar Salam

on 27 April 2015

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Transcript of Dissection of Sheep Lung & Heart

Purpose & Objective
We, as a class, have been studying the respiratory and cardiovascular systems for a fair amount of time now and have also been tested on the material. This lab gave us a chance to enhance our understanding towards these corresponding systems and to build up on our previous knowledge. In groups of three, we were asked to identify, and take pictures, of the different parts of the respiratory system, as well as the cardiovascular system, including the different heart chambers, valves and blood vessels.
The Heart
This is what was given to us at the start of the lab. The heart, as show above, is still enclosed within the pericardium and numerous fatty layers.
The Heart
After removing the membranous sac enclosing the heart (pericardium) with scissors, this was our result.
PART 2
LUNG DISSECTION

Right Atrium
The right upper chamber of the heart. It is the part of the heart that receives the deoxygenated blood from the whole body through the venae cavae.
Lab:
Dissection of Sheep Lung & Heart
By: Nizar Salam

Left Atrium
The left upper chamber of the heart. It is the part of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, through the pulmonary veins.
Right Ventricle
The lower right chamber of the heart. The chamber is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Left Ventricle
The lower left chamber of the heart. This chamber is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the whole body.
Venae Cavae
My partners and I were only able to identify the superior vena cava, in addition to the joining area of both, the inferior and superior vena cava, as shown above. The venae cavae are the two largest veins in the body. The superior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body (head, neck, arms, and chest regions) to the right atrium. While the inferior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body (legs, back, abdomen, and pelvis regions) to the right atrium.
Coronary Arteries
Arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the myocardium (heart tissue) itself. There are numerous types of coronary arteries arounf the ventral and dorsal surface of the heart. The openings of the right and left coronary arteries are found near the aortic valve, although the branches are revealved on the outer layers of the heart.
Pulmonary Veins
A group of blood vessels that drain oxygenated blood from the lungs and returs it to the right atrium. These vessels play a key role in respiration, by recieving blood that has been oxygenated in the alveoli. Furthermore, it is one of the only veins that carries oxygenated blood.
PART 1
HEART DISSECTION

Aorta
Pulmonary Arteries
These blood vessels are responsible for transporting deoxygenated blood from the heart and into the lungs. They exit the right ventricle and lie next to the left atrium. One of the only arteries that carries oxygenated blood.
It is the main artery in the human body, distributing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through systemic circulation. Originating from the left ventricle of the heart, it extends all the way down to the abdomen where it splits into two smaller arteries.
Right AV Valve
Right Semilunar Valve
Left AV Valve
Left Semilunar Valve
It is the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Allows blood to be pumped from the right atrium into the left ventricle, maintaining the flow in one direction. It also prevents deoxygenated blood from flowing back. It has three flaps, hence the name "tricuspid valve".
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle. Allows the flow of blood in one direction and prevents oxygenated blood from flowing back. The valve has only 2 flaps, hence the name "bicuspid valve".
It is referred to as the pulmonic valve. Exists in the right ventricle and leads the deoxygenated blood to the pulmonary arteries. Prevents back flow of blood from the arteries to the ventricles during ventricular diastole. Also helps maintain pressure on the major arteries.
Also referred to as the aortic valve. It exists in the left ventricle and leads the oxygenated blood to the aorta so that it is pumped towards the whole body. Furthermore, it prevents back flow of blood from the arteries to the ventricles during ventricular diastole, maintaining pressure on the major arteries.
Lungs
We observed a lung and were, of course, able to identify the different parts of the respiratory system. Parts like the trachea, the bronchi, and bronchioles were very evident.
FURTHER INVESTIGATION
Part 1
We were askd to cut a part of the lung (3cm x 3cm), as well as a part of the heart with similar dimensions. We were then asked to drop both pieces into a large container of water and record our observations. The piece of lung floated while the piece of heart sank. This is mainly due to the overall composition of both, the lung and heart. The lung floated because it is made up of spongy tissue and consists of a good amount of space as a result of all the alveoli. Meanwhile the heart sank because it is dense and packed since it is muscular.
Part 2
We a used a 5ml syringe to pump air into the piece of lung, through the clear and distinct bronchioles. As expected, the piece of lung inflated and although it was not a major inflammation, the alteration in size was definitely notable.
Conclusion
This lab was definitely a successful one and in my opinion, my favorite one yet, since I really enjoy hands-on experiments. We all came into the lab prepared, having studied the respiratory and circulatory systems. Furthermore, we were given the lab handouts prior to the lab, which gave us an advantage to get familiar with the procedure, materials, and overall objective(s).
There were a few, minor limitations such as the removal of certain blood vessels when removing the pericardium and the fatty layers at the beginning of the lab. Also, personally, I got slightly confused with the pictures while creating my presentation, because a few blood vessels and valves are hard to differentiate between, thus I could have labeled them on my phone during the lab.
Overall though, the lab was significant and I believe we, as students, built up on our knowledge towards the subject and got a better understanding.
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