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The Egyptian Revolution of 1919

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Allison Martin

on 4 December 2012

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Transcript of The Egyptian Revolution of 1919

The Egyptian Revoltion of 1919 By: Allison Martin The Revolution The Aftermath Independence Bibliography Conditions The Revolution Wafd Party Events Beginnings Background Causes What caused the Egyptian Revolution of 1919? Although the Ottoman Empire had sovereignty over Egypt, the political connection between Egypt and Sudan was severed when Muhammad Ali came to power in 1805 and was re-enforced by the British occupation of Egypt in 1882. Even though the Khedive, or president, of Egypt and Sudan remained the official ruler, the ultimate power belonged to the British Consul-General. During World War I, Britain declared martial law in Egypt and announced that it would shoulder the entire burden of the war. On December 14, 1914, Egypt became a separate sultanate, or a country ruled by an Islamic leader, and was declared a British protectorate, which means that Britain would have control over Egypt. This terminated the Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt. The terms of the protectorate led Egyptians to believe that this was only temporary and would change after the war ended. Saad Zaghloul was an Egyptian revolutionary and statesman. He was arrested in the 1880s for being politically active. Upon his release from prison, he practiced law and distinguished himself. This caused him to become involved in Egyptian politics. In 1919, he led an official Egyptian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference demanding that Britain formally recognize the independence and unity of Egypt and Sudan. Shortly after World War I was concluded, a delegation of Egyptian nationalists led by Saad Zaghloul, otherwise known as the Wafd party, made a request to High Commissioner Reginald Wingate to end the British protectorate and gain Egyptian representation at the next peace conference in Paris. Meanwhile, a mass movement for the full independence of Egypt and Sudan was being organized, using the tactics of civil disobedience. The Wafd Party was a nationalist liberal political party in Egypt. It was said to be Egypt's most popular and influential party at the time. Saad Zaghloul was the creator and leader of this political party. It began to take shape at the end of World War I and was filled with members who shared the same beliefs as Zaghloul. He and the rest of the Wafd Party had massive support among the Egyptian people. Wafdists went into towns and villages to collect signatures authorizing the movement's leaders to petition for the complete independence of Egypt and Sudan. Seeing the popular support that the Wafd leaders were gaining, and in fear of social unrest, British officers arrested Zaghloul and two other movement leaders on March 8th, 1919. From there the three were sent to exile in Malta. Between March 15th to March 31st, over 3,000 Egyptians were killed, numerous villages were burnt to the ground, properties were destroyed, and railroads were ruined. The result was a revolution. For several weeks until April, normal life was brought to a halt because of the demonstrations and strikes across Egypt by student's, elite, civil, servants, merchants, peasants, workers, and religious leaders. This mass movement involved both men and women and even involved the divide between Muslim and Christian Egyptians as well. Uprisings in the countryside were more violent. They included attacks on the British military, civilian facilities, and personnel. By July 23, 1919, 800 Egyptians had died and 1,600 others had been wounded. "Egypt Revolution 1919." Egypt Revolution 1919. N.p., 16 Dec. 2000. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/echo/egypt1919a.htm>.
"Egyptian Revolution of 1919." - The Free Online Dictionary and Encyclopedia (TFODE). Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://enc.tfode.com/Egyptian_Revolution_of_1919>.
"Saad Zaghloul." Quotes. 2012 Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Saad-Zaghloul/quotes/>.
"Aristotle's Three Modes of Persuasion in Rhetoric." Aristotle's Modes of Persuasion in Rhetoric: Ethos, Pathos and Logos. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.mountainman.com.au/essenes/aristotles_modes_of_persuasion_in_rhetoric.htm>.
"Modes of Persuasion." European Rhetoric. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.european-rhetoric.com/rhetoric-101/modes-persuasion-aristotle/>. Although the British Government agreed to recognize Egypt as an independent state, this was only upon certain conditions. The following matters were reserved to the discretion of the British. They were: The security of the communications of the British Empire in Egypt: the defense of Egypt against foreign aggression: the protection of foreign interests in Egypt: and the Sudan. The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation in Egypt and Sudan. Prior to World War I, only the educated elite were aware of the nationalist agitation. Over the course of the war, dissatisfaction with the British rule spread throughout all classes of the population. This was due to Egypt's involvement in the war. During the war, Britain brought foreign troops into the country of Egypt, forced over one and a half million Egyptians into labor corporations, and demanded buildings, crops, and animals which were to be used in the army. Throughout the time span of World War I, Egyptian political classes prepared for self government because of allied promises during the war. By the time the war ended, the Egyptian people wanted to claim their independence. Saad Zaghloul "We are going ahead and no one can stop our march. We are not a fragile nation and I am carrying my duty for the sake of God and my country. I take my decisions after consulting with everybody."
-Saad Zaghoul The British government sent a Commission of Inquiry, known as the Milner Mission, to Egypt in December of 1919 to determine the causes of the disorder and to provide recommendations about the political future of the country. Milner's report recommended that the protectorate status of Egypt was not satisfactory and should be abandoned. The revolts forced London to issue a declaration of Egyptian independence on February 22nd, 1922. The Wafd Party was finally able to draft a new constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary representative system. The Three Modes of Persuasion Rhetoric Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Ethos Ethos is an appeal to the authority or honesty of the speaker. It is how well the speaker convinces the audience that he or she
is qualified to speak on the particular subject. This can be done in several ways such as:
by being a notable figure in the field of question
by having a vested interest in the matter
by appealing to a person's ethics or character Pathos Pathos appeals to the audience's emotions.
Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of ways such as:
by a metaphor or storytelling
by a general passion in the delivery and an overall number of emotional items in the text of the speech, or in writing. Logos Logos is the appeal to the audience's sense of logic, thus the speaker wants to present an argument that appears to be sound to the audience. It encompasses the content and arguments of the speech. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's topic. Conclusion In this particular act of civil disobedience, I think that Saad Zaghloul uses all three modes of persuasion rhetoric. He makes use of ethos because he is an important political figure, therefore the audience has an appeal towards his authority. He uses pathos to connect with his audience. You can tell that he is passionate about saving his country from ruin and working towards their independence. He includes logos because he has plenty of experience and knowledge about the topic in which he is defending. Saad has several facts and figures to support his cause. This sort of knowledge attracts people to him and convinces them to follow him.
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