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APUSH Civil War Timeline
Transcript of APUSH Civil War Timeline
General Beauregard demanded the surrender of a Union garrison, Ft. Sumter, in Charleston harbor. Major Anderson refused. The Confederacy opened fire on April 12th, and on April 13th, Major Anderson surrendered. The attack on Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the Civil War, and only 2 were killed (both were Union casualties) Ft. Sumter is Attacked! April 12-14, 1861 Telegram to the Secretary of War from Major Anderson during the siege of Fort Sumter First Battle of Bull Run General Irvin McDowell seeked to attack confederate forces led b General Beauregard, who held a strong position along Bull Run. However, McDowell's plan was to overcomplicated. Luckily, the Confederate army was also very disorganized, so the battle was messy, but dominated by the Union. Their luck was cut short, though, when the Confederate army got backups, then the Union was forced to retreat back to Washington DC. This was the first real battle on land and also the battle where Lincoln realized that this war was going to be a long and costly affair. McDowell was relieved and replaced by McClellan. July 21, 1861 The Confederate ironclad Virginia sank the SS Cumberland and ran the USS Congress aground, so the Union sent the Monitor to keep her from the other ships. The Virginia and the Monitor attacked each other until a draw was declared. Both ships were severely damaged, but the Virginia was never to be afloat again. This was the first ironclad duel in history and the first "draw" of the Civil War. Monitor VS. Merrimack March 8-9, 1862 The Monitor's Deck Turret (1862) Second Battle of Bull Run August 28-30, 1862 The Second Battle of Manassas was fought though General Pope was in dire need of reinforcements and supplies. After the stalemate, he attacked, since it was too dangerous to retreat or stand still in front of Jackson's Confederate army. He was harshly retaliated and driven back to Bull Run. This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign, and also that caused Lincoln to fire General Pope. "General: I have the honor herewith to submit to you a report of the operations of my command from August 15 to September 5, 1862, embracing the several engagements of Manassas Junction, Bristoe Station, Ox Hill, and so much of the battle of Groveton(on August 28, 29, and 30) as was fought by the troops under my command: On August 15, in obedience to instructions from the commanding General, I left my encampment, near Gordonsville, and, passing Orange Court-House, encamped in the evening near Mount Pisgah Church, where I remained until the 20th..."
Excerpt from a letter written by Stonewall Jackson on April 27, 1862 The Battle of Antietam Sept. 16-18, 1862 McClellan's army of the Potomac attacked Robert E. Lee's army of Northern Virginia. Although the Union had a large numerical advantage, Lee's army held. Still, the Union's successful attacks against the Sunken Road secured their defensive position. Then, Burnside sent backups, but McClellan STILL did not take advantage of his numbers and fought weakly (for his numbers). The Confederacy was able to stand, but was heavily wounded. Lincoln did not allow McClellan to attack them any longer, so the Confederacy "retreated," which meant that people saw this as a Union win, although it was really a draw because both sides refused to fight and lose more soldiers. This was the bloodiest battle in American History, and set up a platform to deliver the Emancipation proclamation, since a lot of soldiers were losing the will to fight (the Emancipation Proclamation would give them a perfect pick-me-up). Emancipation Proclamation January 1st, 1863 The Emancipation Proclamation is a document issued by Abraham Lincoln to end slavery in the Confederate States. This proclamation stopped English support and secured that they would not try to ally themselves with the Confederacy anymore. Also, it gave African Americans in the South their freedom, giving the Union soldiers a new, honorable reason to fight. This changed the North's reason to fight. Battle of Fredericksburg Dec. 11-15, 1862 The Union army assaulted the Confederacy under Lee successfully, but the lack of reinforcements and Jackson's counterattacks didn't give them the upper hand. The Confederate army remained impregnable while the Union suffered great casualties. The Confederacy took a great victory. This was the first battle in an urban area, and first major opposed river crossing in American Military history. As a result of this battle, Lincoln removes Burnside from his position as General. Battle of Chancellorsville April 30 - May 6, 1863 The rejuvenated army of General Hooker crossed the Rappahannock Fords to attack Lee's weak army. Stonewall Jackson pulled a gutsy scheme and followed a circuitous route to the Union right and attacked the exposed flank. He was successful in hurting the Union army, but received a fatal wound. This was the greatest Confederate victory and yet another failure for the North. Stonewall Jackson did not survive his injury and the south would have to find a new commander. Battle of Vicksburg May 8 - July 4, 1863 Ulysses S. Grant's army marched into Vicksburg on May 8 and trapped a confederate force under Lt. General Pemberton. Then, starting on the 22nd of May, a siege began to retake Vicksburg. Pemberton's army slowly started dying and the city found new refuge in caves and hills. Finally, on July 4th 1863, Vicksburg surrendered to Grand: A Union win. The battle of Vicksburg was one of the most important of the war because it split the Confederacy in half and also boosted Ulysses S. Grant's reputation that would elevate him to General in Chief of the Union Army. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 After Chancellorsville, Lee led his army to attack the North again to secure another battle up north and demotivate war up there. They were outnumbered but fought fiercely. The last confederate push, the famous Pickett's charge, was repulsed by Union forces and Lee's army faced great losses, as well as had to endure a shameful retreat back to Virginia. This battle was the turning point of the war because up until then, the south had been successful in their attacks in the north. Also, Lincoln's post battle "Gettysburg Address," inspired weary soldiers to fight for the cause of the Union, but more importantly, for the freedom of the African-Americans. Sherman's March Nov. 15 - Dec. 12, 1864 General Sherman led 60,000 soldiers from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia in order to frighten Georgians into leaving the Confederacy and stop their support of secession. Sherman did not take towns, but did respond aggressively to anyone who opposed him by stealing or pillaging. His "March to the Sea" did indeed frighten civilians because it proved to them that the Confederate army could not protect them, therefore, the government could not protect them. Appomattox Court House April 9th, 1865 After General Lee's army was completely cut off from reinforcements or any escape, they surrendered in Appomattox Court House. This did not end the war, but it set the stage for its conclusion. This was the climax of the Civil war, and the beginning of the reconstruction of the Union. The Missouri Compromise Jan.1820 The Missouri Compromise was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro and anti slavery factions in America, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the Western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana territory except within the boundaries of Missouri. It set an imaginary line at 36º latitude, where slave was prohibited above and permitted below it. Its importance lay in the fact that it kept political balance until the debate got heated, and the Compromise was ended with the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Compromise of 1850 defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states and the free states regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican War. The Compromise aimed to admit California as a free state, allow New Mexico to decide whether to be a free state or slave state, enact a strong fugitive slave law, and preserve slavery in the District of Columbia. The compromise, made by Henry Clay of the Whig Party avoided secession and civil war for four years. Compromise of 1850 Sept. 1850 Fugitive Slave Act September 18, 1850 Congress passed this act on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between the North and South. It declared that all runaway slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters. The significance of the Fugitive Slave Act is the fact that it was the government recognizing the South’s right to own slaves. Uncles Tom’s Cabin is a book published by Harriet Beecher Stowe about slavery. It helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War by exposing the cruelties of slavery to Northern audiences, inciting audacity, and eventually creating more abolitionists. The book only portrayed the horrors and inhumanities of slavery, making the North extremely bias towards all slavery since the book is all they could know about that specific institution. Uncle Tom's Cabin March 20, 1852 This Act passed in 1854 created the territories both these states, and opened new lands for settlement. It repealed the Missouri compromise by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether or not they wanted to allow slavery. The act was designed by Stephen Douglass in an attempt to open up many thousands of new farms and make a railroad. The result was that slaveholders and abolitionists flooded into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down, leading to a bloody war. Kansas-Nebraska Act May 30, 1854 Those opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska act formed their own political party called the Republican Party. This anti-slavery party began on March 20, 1954 and would later have Abraham Lincoln as their leader. The Republican party’s significance is that it was the beginning of an opposition to the Democratic Party, whose beliefs on majority were overpowering what Republicans believed to be moral law. The two parties would eventually rift so deeply that their aversion could still be seen today. Republican Party Forms March 20, 1854 Chief Justice Roger Taney passed his verdict on this case on March 6, 1857 in regards to Dred Scott, a slave who had once lived in free land. When Scott tried to sue for his freedom, the jury voted to give him freedom, but the state did not, so they took it to Federal Court. Taney quickly dismissed the case because he didn’t even acknowledge Scott to be a citizen of the United States. His ruling held that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the new territories and that African-Americans were not protected by the Constitution. Dred Scott Decision March 6, 1857 Lincoln-Douglass Debates August 21 - Oct 15, 1858 A Series of debates between Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln and Senator Stephan Douglass of the Democratic Party that would result in Lincoln’s election and a Republican victory. Slavery was the main issue discussed in all seven debates during August 21-Oct 15 1858. When Lincoln published texts of the debates and they were spread across the US, he gained the popularity to be nominated for Presidency. John Brown's Raid at
Harper's Ferry This raid was an attempt by abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt by seizing an arsenal in Virginia in 1859. Colonel Lee’s army defeated Brown’s raid, and John Brown was killed. This scared many white pro-slavery citizens and further stirred the boiling pot of war. October 16–18, 1859 Lincoln is Elected
as President After several long hard fought debates, Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860 as president of the country. Then, as a result of that, the South Carolina seceded from the union causing the outbreak of the Civil War. November 6, 1860 South Carolina Secedes When South Carolina seceded on December 20, 1860, the rest of the South quickly followed its example and there was a widespread discontent in the North. Almost immediately after, the first shots of war began. December 20, 1860 Confederacy Forms The Confederacy formed on 1861 and lasted until 1865, it consisted of eleven southern slave states that had declared themselves independent from the North. The Civil War fought to protect the Confederacy would eventually be the bloodiest war in American History. The Confederate states of America were eventually defeated by the Union and made part of the United States again, never having been formally recognized as an independent state. Feb. 4, 1861 New York Daily Tribune, March 09, 1857, Page 5 "...I determined to summon the insurgents to surrender. As soon after daylight as the arrangements were made Lieutenant J. E. B. Stewart, 1st cavalry, who had accompanied me from Washington as staff officer, was dispatched, under a flag, with a written summons... Knowing the character of the leader of the insurgents, I did not expect it would be accepted. I had therefore directed that the volunteer troops, under their respective commanders, should be paraded on the lines assigned them outside the armory, and had prepared a storming party of twelve marines, under their commander, Lieutenant Green, and had placed them close to the engine house, and secure from its fire. Three marines were furnished with sledge-hammers to break in the doors, and the men were instructed how to distinguish our citizens from the insurgents; to attack with the bayonet and not to injure the blacks detained in custody unless they resisted."
- Eye Witness account of the John Brown Raid "'I've seen 'em as would pull a woman's child out of her arms, and set him up to sell, and she screechin' like mad all the time; – very bad policy – damages the article – makes 'em quite unfit for service sometimes. I knew a real handsome gal once, in Orleans, as was entirely ruined by this sort o' handling. The fellow that was trading for her didn't want her baby; and she was one of your real high sort, when her blood was up. I tell you, she squeezed up her child in her arms, and talked, and went on real awful. It kinder makes my blood run cold to think of 't; and when they carried off the child, and locked her up, she jest went ravin' mad, and died in a week.'"
- An excerpt from Uncle Tom's Cabin "THE ILLINOIS CHAMPIONS ON THE SAME STUMP. – Mr. Lincoln, who expects to fill Mr. Douglas’ seat in the Senate, has challenged his competitor to stump the State with him, after the Southern fashion, where each candidate addresses the people on the same day from the same rostrum. Mr. Douglas is a little afraid that the other democratic candidate may come into the arrangement and place the Little Giant between two fires – after the fashion of Maryatt’s triangular duel. But being of accommodating disposition, Mr. Douglas will meet Mr. Lincoln at one prominent point in each Congressional district in the State, except the Second and Fourth, where Mr. Lincoln has already had the last word. This arrangement will doubtless be accepted by Mr. Lincoln, and the people will have an opportunity to hear the various questions of the day discussed by two orators of recognized ability. 'When Greek joins Greek, then comes the tug of war.'"
-Excerpt from the New York Herald before another debate. (Goes over the case and the final ruling) Pg. 2 of the Emancipation Proclamation Total casualties numbered above 50,000 over the three days of the Battle of Gettysburg CIVIL WAR TIMELINE